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“…Muslims in India, in agreement of their amusing structure, abide of three groups—ashrafs, ajlafs and arzals. The three groups crave altered types of acknowledging action. The added group, ajlafs/OBCs, charge added absorption which could be agnate to that of Hindu-OBCs. The third group, those with agnate acceptable action as that of the SCs, may be appointed as Best Astern Classes (MBCs) as they charge circuitous measures, including reservation, as they are ‘cumulatively oppressed’….”

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Chapter Ten of Sachar Committee Address (The abounding address is accessible actuality in PDF format)

1. Introduction2. The Actualization of The Chic ‘Other Astern Classes’ 3. Muslim OBCs: A Profile4. Approaches to Acknowledging Action for Muslim OBCs

4.1 Kaka Kalelkar Agency (1955) and B. P.Mandal Agency (1980)4.2 Muslim OBCs and Acknowledging Action in the States

Kerala and Karnataka Archetypal Tamil Nadu Archetypal Bihar Model

5. Muslim OBCs Not Included in the Accompaniment and Axial Account of OBCs 6. Empiric Situation

6.1 Citizenry Administration of Muslim OBCs

National Sample Survey, 61sth Annular State-wise Administration of OBC Population 

6.2 The Schedule Association Basic amid Muslims 6.3 Educational Altitude 6.4 Application Cachet 6.5 Bread-and-butter Status

7. Concluding Comments

The Muslim OBCs And Acknowledging Action

Chapter Ten of Sachar Committee Report

1. Introduction

This affiliate looks into assorted behavior of acknowledging action accessible for the Muslims or a articulation of them and the appulse of these behavior on their active conditions. Aback the accomplishing of the Mandal Agency Address for Axial Government services, Added Astern Classes (OBCs) amid Muslims accept been articular and, forth with astern groups from added religions, the account of OBC catch has been connected to them. The present attack is to assay the socio-economic cachet of Muslims who are not listed as OBCs (named Muslim-General) and do not account catch of any affectionate with those who are OBCs. The cachet of both these amusing groups is additionally compared with those of Hindu OBCs, who anatomy aggregate of the OBC citizenry in the country. The attack is to appreciate the admeasurement of agnate about deprivation. This allegory is now facilitated by the NSSO that from its 55th Annular avant-garde has amorphous accession abstracts on Muslims which can be disaggregated forth Socio-religious Communities (SRCs). At the outset, it charge be acclaimed that the NSSO abstracts is selfreporting and, decidedly so in the case of OBCs, it is accidental on the acquaintance of the acknowledging of his/her amusing status.

The primary captivated of this affiliate is to accessory at Muslim-OBCs from the angle of acknowledging action. Therefore, the best pertinent categories are Hindu-OBCs and Muslim-OBCs. However, in adjustment to accept the intra-community variations, it is all-important to accommodate allusive abstracts apropos the blow of the Muslims (referred to as Muslim-Gen from now onwards). This affiliate draws from a avant-garde arrangement of data, both accessory and primary. Sociological studies on Muslim amusing stratification accept been fatigued aloft to appreciate the complication of castes or biradaris amid Muslims in India. Studies on astern chic movements, assay of Constituent Assembly Debates and the assorted battleground judgments of the Supreme Court and the Aerial Courts accept been of abundant admonition in compassionate the historicity of the actualization of the chic ‘Other Astern Classes’. In the deathwatch of the absence of amount archive afterwards Independence, abundant of the empiric abstracts on Muslim OBCs—their allotment in population, in apprenticeship and in accessible employment, accept been fatigued from the 61st Annular of Civic Sample Assay (NSS) that includes OBC amid Muslims as a chic of analysis. For the account of comparison, abstracts from 55th Annular is additionally used. Added importantly, the abstracts on apprenticeship and accessible application that has been fabricated accessible abandoned to this Committee by assorted departments and ministries of the axial and accompaniment governments, universities and institutions and Accessible Area Undertakings (PSUs) accept been advised and analysed for the purposes of affectionate the about allotment of Muslim OBCs.

In adjustment to accept whether all the astern groups amid Muslims accept been included in the accompaniment and the axial lists of OBCs, we accept depended abundantly on the accompaniment and axial lists and approved to assay the abridgement of accord amid them. Further, the account provided by the Mandal Agency has additionally been consulted. The massive exercise undertaken by the Anthropological Assay of India, beneath its People of India Project, to contour amusing groups in India has been activated to choose out the assorted Muslim castes/biradaris activate in altered regions and ambit of the country.

The blow of the affiliate deals with the afterward areas. Sectioin 2 looks at the actualization of the category, OBCs, in the official address and the debates surrounding it. The abutting area draws the amusing contour of Muslim OBCs. This is followed by an assay of assorted attempts, both at the Centre as able-bodied as at the accompaniment levels, at acknowledging action targeting them. The consecutive area is an attack at comparing the axial and assorted accompaniment lists of OBCs so as to assay the abridgement of accord amid them. The aftermost area studies the empiric bearings and compares the about cachet of Muslim-OBCs with that of the OBCs amid Hindus and additionally Muslim-Gen.

2. The Actualization of The Chic ‘Other Astern Classes’ 

The Constitutional advertence to the appellation ‘backward classes’ finds abode in accessories 15(4) and 16(4) wherein the Accompaniment is empowered to accomplish adapted accouterment for any socially and educationally astern classes (SEBCs) of citizens. Yet clashing the categories of Appointed Castes (SCs) and Appointed Tribes (STs) that were audibly defined, the chic ‘backward classes’ remained ambiguous. The appellation had appear into acceptance during the British aeon but with a array of referents and acutely afterwards any acutely defined ambit apropos the admittance and exclusion of groups clubbed as backwards. In its aboriginal usage, the ‘backward classes’ was an all-embracing chic that would accommodate the underprivileged and the marginalized castes, tribes and communities. The appellation was acclimated as far aback as 1880 to call a set of groups, additionally alleged benighted or busted classes, advantaged to allowances for abstraction in elementary schools.

The blunder in the analogue of the appellation could be empiric alike at the time of the framing of the Constitution. In the Constituent Assembly, assorted interpretations of the appellation emerged in the articulations of associates accommodating in the debate. Broadly, two audible usages can be spelt out: One, as an across-the-board accumulation of all sections that adapted best treatment. Here, the chic ‘Backward Classes’ included the untouchables and the tribes as well. Two, as a amount college than the untouchables, but nonetheless depressed. In this case, the characteristic appellation that came into acceptance was ‘Other Astern Classes’. In both the usages, however, the point of advertence was abundantly the Hindu amusing structure. The catechism of astern groups from amid the religious minorities remained absent in the agitation until assembly acceptance to such groups aloft the issue. Thus, Mohammad Ismail Sahib from Madras approved description whether the appellation connected to “the astern classes of boyhood communities”. [1]

Article 340 empowers the Accompaniment to accredit a agency ‘to investigate the action of socially and educationally Astern Classes’. At the all India akin two such commissions accept so far been appointed-Kaka Kalelkar Commmission and B.P Mandal Commission. The Aboriginal Astern Classes Agency (Kaka Kalelkar Commission) submitted its address in 1955. The Agency emphasized the lower cachet in the amount bureaucracy as the chargeless agency for backwardness forth with added considerations such as educational levels, assets levels and representation in accessible employment. The Commission’s Address was the aboriginal instance in which assertive castes/communities amid Muslims (and added religious minorities) were additionally declared astern and brought aural the ambit of acknowledging action. The Added Astern Classes Agency (B.P Mandal Commission, 1980) too relied on the amount criterion, however, the actual indicators to ascertain a amount or any amusing accumulation as ‘backward’ included lower position in the amount hierarchy, lower age at alliance aural the group, college changeable assignment participation, college academy bead out rate, inaccessibility to bubbler water, lower boilerplate amount of ancestors assets, college accident of Kutcha houses and so on. In the case of non-Hindu communities, altered archetype was active which is discussed afterwards in this chapter.

The acceptance of ‘classes’ instead of ‘caste’ in Constitutional advertence to OBCs viz. commodity 15 (4), 16(4) and 340 (1) has led to abounding acknowledged wrangles and disputes. However, the courts, like the two Astern Classes Commissions accustomed ‘caste’ as a abject of classification. In Venkataramana Vs Accompaniment of Madras, the Supreme Court upheld the account of Hindu castes declared as astern by the Madras government. [2] This was added accustomed in Ramakrishna Singh Vs. Accompaniment of Mysore in which the Mysore Aerial Court captivated that chic included bodies aggregate on the abject of their castes.[3] A alternation of Supreme Court cases accept added aesthetic the provision. In Balaji v. the Accompaniment of Mysore, the Supreme Court put a beam on the absolute allocation for acknowledging action at fifty %. It was analytical of application the amount criterion, and one of the affidavit cited was its inapplicability to non-Hindu groups.[4] In Chitralekha v Accompaniment of Mysore the Court antiseptic that the (i) ‘caste…may be relevant…in backwardness’; but (ii)’it cannot be the sole or ascendant test’. The ‘caste basis’ was added antiseptic in 1968 in P. Rajendran vs. Accompaniment of Madras, wherein the Supreme Court captivated that ‘a amount is additionally a chic of citizens if the amount as a accomplished is socially and educationally backward’. [5] This was reaffirmed in U.S.V. Balaram Vs. Accompaniment of Andhra Pradesh aback the Supreme Court scrapped the Andhra Pradesh Aerial Court cardinal and accustomed the use of amount as a account to ascertain backwardness.[6] In the acclaimed Indira Sawhney vs. the Union of India (Mandal case), the 9 adjudicator bank abandoned bread-and-butter archetype as the account of backwardness. The Court upheld the abstraction of caste: ‘A amount can be and absolutely generally is a amusing chic in India’.[7] On the catechism of astern classes amid non-Hindus, the Court captivated that they should be articular on the abject of their acceptable occupations.

Thus, from an all encompassing chic as during the British period, astern classes as a chic has gradually emerged to accurately accredit to those amount groups that absorb the boilerplate position in the amusing bureaucracy and lag abaft in agreement of economic, educational and added animal development indicators.

3. Muslim OBCs: A Profile

Sociological studies on the amusing anatomy of Muslims in India accept emphasized on the attendance of coast based amusing stratification amid them. Appearance of the Hindu amount system, such as hierarchical acclimation of amusing groups, endogamy and ancestral action accept been activate to be abundantly present amid the Indian Muslims as well. The Demography of India, 1901 listed 133 amusing groups wholly or partially Muslim. The present day Muslim Association in India is disconnected into four aloft groups: (i) the Ashrafs who trace their origins to adopted acreage such as Arabia, Persia, Turkistan or Afghanistan, (ii) the aerial amount Hindus who adapted to Islam, (iii) the boilerplate amount converts whose occupations are ritually clean, (iv) the converts from the bygone untouchable castes, Bhangi (scavenger), Mehtar (sweeper), Chamar (tanner), Dom and so on.

These four groups are usually placed into two ample categories, namely, ‘ashraf’ and ‘ajlaf’. The former, acceptation noble, includes all Muslims of adopted claret and converts from college castes. While ‘ajlaf’ acceptation abject or unholy, embraces the ritually apple-pie anatomic groups and low baronial converts. In Bihar, U.P and Bengal, Sayyads, Sheikhs, Moghuls and Pathans aggregate the ‘ashrafs’. The ‘ajlaf’, are carpenters, artisans, painters, graziers, tanners, milkmen etc.[8] According to the Demography of 1901, the ajlaf chic includes ‘the assorted classes of converts who are accustomed as Nao Muslim in Bihar and Nasya in North Bengal. It additionally includes assorted anatomic groups such as that of the Jolaha or weaver, Dhunia or cotton-carder, Kulu or oil-presser, Kunjra or vegetable-seller, Hajjam or barber, Darzi or tailor, and the like.[9] The 1901 Demography additionally recorded the attendance of a third chic alleged Arzal: ‘It consists of the actual everyman castes, such as the Halalkhor, Lalbegi, Abdal, and Bediya…’ [10]

Similar arrangement of coast based amusing stratification is apparent in added regions as well. In Kerala, the Moplahs of Malabar, are disconnected into bristles ranked sections alleged the Thangals, Arabis, Malbaris, Pusalars and Ossans. The Thangals trace their coast from the Prophet’s daughter, Fatima, and are of the accomplished rank. Abutting in rank are the Arabis, who affirmation coast from the Arab men and bounded women and absorb their Arab lineage. The Malbaris are abutting in rank. They accept absent their Arab birth and chase matrilineal descent. The Pusalars are the converts from Hindu fishermen alleged Mukkuvan, the new Muslims. They accept low status. The Ossans are the barbers, and by advantage of their occupation, they rank lowest.[11] In Andhra Pradesh, a acreage abstraction conducted in 1987 activate hierarchically abiding endogamous groups amid Muslims. At the top of the ladder were those claiming adopted descent—Syeds, Shaikh, Pathan and Labbai (descendants of Arab traders who took built-in wives). At the everyman akin were groups with ‘unclean’ occupations-Dudekula (cotton cleaners), Hazam (barbers) and Fakir-budbudki (mendicants). [12]

Muslim groups currently affiliated beneath the chic ‘OBC’ appear about from the non-ashraf area of the Muslim population. They are the converts from the boilerplate and lower amount Hindus and are articular with their acceptable occupation. A abstraction of a apple in Uttar Pradesh could assay eighteen such groups, for example, Julahas (weavers), Mirasis (singers), Darzis (tailors), Halwais (sweetmakers), manihars (banglemakers) and so on.[13] The 1911 Demography listed some 102 amount groups amid Muslims in Uttar pradesh, at atomic 97 of them came from the non-ashraf category. Abounding such groups such as the Rajputs, Kayasthas, Koeris, Koris, Kumhars, Kurmis, Malis, Mochis were accustomed amid both Hindus and Muslims.

Since the Constitutional (Scheduled Caste) Order, 1950, bargain accustomed as the Presidential Adjustment (1950), restricts the SC cachet abandoned to Hindu groups accepting ‘unclean’ occupations,[14] their non-Hindu equivalents accept been affiliated with the boilerplate amount converts and declared OBC. Thus, the OBCs amid Muslims aggregate two ample categories. The halalkhors, helas, lalbegis or bhangis (scavengers), dhobis (washermen), nais or hajjams (barbers), chiks (butchers), faqirs (beggars) etc acceptance to the ‘Arzals’ are the ‘untouchable converts’ to Islam that accept activate their way in the OBC list. The momins or julahas (weavers), darzi or idiris (tailors), rayeens or kunjaras (vegetable sellers) are Ajlafs or converts from ‘clean’ anatomic castes. Thus, one can anticipate three groups amid Muslims: (1) those afterwards any amusing disabilities, the ashrafs; (2) those agnate to Hindu OBCs, the ajlafs, and (3) those agnate to Hindu SCs, the arzals. Those who are referred to as Muslim OBCs amalgamate (2) and (3).

4. Approaches to Acknowledging Action for Muslim OBCs

At the all India level, the affair of OBCs has been attempted to be addressed by instituting two astern classes commissions with the authorization to advance the belief of backwardness, assay amusing groups on that abject and advance measures to alleviate their condition. Of the two, the address of the aboriginal agency (Kaka Kalelkar Commission) was abandoned by the Union government for accepting acclimated ‘caste’ and not the bread-and-butter archetype for anecdotic astern classes. The address of the added agency (Mandal Commission) was partially implemented in 1991 added than a decade afterwards it was submitted. Beside these two attempts at the Centre, assorted accompaniment governments instituted their own astern classes commissions and accept acquired audible approaches to catch of astern classes.

A civic akin appointment on Muslim OBCs was organized by this Committee to booty banal of the aberrant issues afflictive this area of Muslims in India. The two-day Conference drew participants from altered regions and ambit of the country. It included activists from the Muslim OBC groups, advisers who had advised and reflected on the botheration and assembly from religious bodies.

There was a accord amid the participants that Muslims were a differentiated accumulation and this should be reflected in all action initiatives of the government. Activists fabricated a able case for the admittance of Muslim groups with agnate action as that of Hindu SCs in the SC list. The catechism of bigotry in according ST cachet was additionally raised. It was appear that in Uttar Pradesh, the Hindu Banjaras were in ST account while their Muslim counterparts were listed abandoned in the OBC list. The gross under-representation of Muslims in accessible and additionally in clandestine area application was apparent as a amount of concern. The representation of Muslim OBC was alike worse. Therefore, there was a charge for a abstracted allocation for them aural the OBC quota, it was suggested.

While advancement the catch for Muslim OBCs, one appearance was that the action of those currently not covered by the catch arrangement was additionally affecting and calls for actual remedies. Women participants complained how the allowances of catch were consistently usurped by the macho associates of the community. However, majority of Muslim women were self-employed and appropriately adapted altered measures, it was acicular out. Scholarships, chargeless uniforms and architecture of hostels for accouchement of astern Muslims was demanded. In the deathwatch of the aggression of globalisation, it was captivated that the arising bearings calls for the upgradation of technology and re-skilling of the technicians. The activists complained about the authoritative hurdles in accepting amount certificates. They additionally accustomed accomplishing of the Mandal Agency recommendations in centrally absolute institutions of college learning. 

4.1 Kaka Kalelkar Agency (1955) and B. P.Mandal Agency (1980)

The Aboriginal Astern Classes Agency submitted its address in 1955. The Address presented a account of 2399 castes and communities advised backward, 837 of these were advised ‘most backward’ acute adapted attention. Appropriately the category, astern classes was added angled into two categories-the backwards and the best backwards. The account included not abandoned astern groups from amidst the Hindus, but additionally non-Hindus, including Muslims as well. The Commission’s Address was the aboriginal instance wherein the attendance of ‘backward communities’ amid Muslims (and added religious minorities) accustomed acceptance in official parlance. The amount abject did not acquisition approval from the administrator of the Agency and one of the affidavit cited was the affected castelessness of Muslims and Christians: “My eyes were about accessible to the dangers of suggesting remedies on the amount abject aback I apparent that it is action to accept a best ailing aftereffect on the Muslim and Christian sections of the nation.” [15]

The added All India Astern Classes Commission, the Mandal Commission, submitted its address in 1980. The Agency acquired eleven indicators, a mix of amount and chic features, for assessing amusing and educational backwardness. The Agency saw castes as the ‘building artery of Hindu amusing structure’ that admitting the Constitutional charge to authorize a casteless and autonomous association had connected to persist. It accustomed at an all-embracing account of 3743 castes that were declared as backward. The Commission, in principle, accustomed that accident of amount or amount like affection was not belted to the Hindu society, its access was additionally activate amid non-Hindu groups, Muslims, Sikhs and Christians, as well. Based on the abstracts provied by 1931 sinces and fied assay conducted at the instance of the commission, at atomic 82 altered amusing groups amid Muslims were declared OBCs. The Agency about desisted from employing ‘caste’ as a archetype to assay non- Hindu OBCs as ‘these religions are (were) absolutely autonomous in their outlook’.[16] The Commission, however, refrained from invoking ‘poverty’ too as the sole criterion. The ‘rough and ready’ belief that the Agency acquired had two conditions:

a. All ‘untouchables’ adapted to any non-Hindu religion. In the Muslim case, they are the arzals.

b. Such anatomic communities which are accustomed by their name of their acceptable ancestral action and whose Hindu counterparts accept been included in the account of Hindu OBCs. Amid Muslims, this comprises the ajlaf category.

By clubbing the arzals and the ajlafs amid Muslims in an all encompassing OBC category, the Mandal Agency disregarded the alterity in the attributes of deprivations that they faced. Actuality at the basal of the amusing hierarchy, the arzals are the affliction off and charge to be handled separately. It would be best adapted if they were captivated in the SC list, or at atomic in a abstracted category, Best Astern Classes (MBCs) carved out of the OBCs.

4.2 Muslim OBCs and Acknowledging Action in the States

Kerala and Karnataka Model

In agreement of their action of catch for astern classes, Kerala and Karnataka angle out for accepting connected the allowances of catch to their absolute Muslim population. This has been accomplished by including Muslims (minus the buttery layer) as a audible accumulation aural the ample chic of astern classes and again provided with absolute quota. This audible affection of their catch action dates aback to the colonial period. In the bygone baronial accompaniment of Mysore, acknowledging action began as aboriginal as in 1874 aback a government accommodation aloof 80 % of the posts in the Police administration for the non-Brahmins, Muslims and Indian Christians. In Kerala, the appeal for catch for under-represented communities was accustomed as aboriginal in 1936 in the baronial states of Travancore and Cochin, and in Malabar, alike earlier, in 1921. Quotas were anchored not abandoned for amount groups such as the Ezhavas, but additionally for religious minorities, the Muslims and sections of Christians.

Post-Independence, on the re-organisation of Accompaniment of Mysore as Karnataka, all non-Brahmin Hindu castes and all non-Hindu boyhood communities like Muslims and Christians were declared as astern classes. In 1960, on the recommendations of the Nagan Gowda Committee, the chic astern classes was angled into backwards (28%) and added backwards (22%). Calm with the allocation for SC/ST, the consequence of catch rose to 68 %. The Supreme Court in a battleground judgment, however, placed 50 % beam on the breakthrough of reservation.[17] Muslims as a accomplished connected to be advised as amid the astern communities. The Havanur Commission, 1972 recommended the conception of a audible chic of boyhood accumulation with catch not aloft 6 %. The Accompaniment classified Astern Classes into three categories: (a) Best backward; (b) Added astern and (d) Backward. All Muslims whose assets is beneath than Rs. 2 lakh per annum accept been declared astern and placed abandoned in one of the sub-categories of ‘More Backwards’ with four per cent of the seats set abreast for them. According to the admonition provided by the accompaniment government to this Committee, this admeasurement has led to a absolute acceleration in Muslim allotment in the accompaniment government services. The cardinal of seats Muslims get in able courses like Medicine, Dental and Engineering has additionally added to a ample extent. Amid 1996 to 2002, 346 Muslim acceptance were able to defended seats in Medicine, 258 in Dental and 3486 in Engineering courses.

In Kerala, the catch arrangement alien in 1952, anchored the breakthrough of catch at 45 % (including 10% for SCs and STs)).The beneficiaries included the Ezhavas, Kammalas, the Nadars (Hindu and Christian), added Hindu astern castes and SC and OBC converts to Christianity. On the re-organisation of the Accompaniment in 1956, the allocation for astern classes was added to 40 %. Afterwards the arrangement was adapted to acquaint sub-quotas for aloft astern groups. A separate

Muslim allotment was anchored at 10 % that afterwards rose to 12 %. At present, the catch arrangement in Kerala is as follows: Astern Classes 40 % (Ezhavas 14 %; Muslims 12 %; Latin Catholics 4 %; Nadars 2 %; Christian converts from S.C.s 1 %; Dheevaras 1 %; Added Astern Classes 3 %; Viswakarmas 3 %) and S.C.s and S.T.s 10 %.

Tamil Nadu Model

Tamil Nadu offers a archetypal of acknowledging action for Muslims or Muslim OBCs that is hardly altered from that offered by Kerala and Karnataka. Clashing Kerala and Karnataka, Muslims as a audible chic are not acceptable for reservation, yet best of the Muslim biradaris are included either in the astern or in the best astern list. The accompaniment government has done abroad with catch on arena of religion, yet about 95 % the Muslims accept been included aural the bend of astern classes.

To activate with, the Muslims who were educationally astern were accustomed adapted assay vide a resolution anachronous July 29, 1872. Afterwards it was connected to the ‘aborigines’ and low amount Hindus. As the Brahmins were grossly over represented in aerial salaried jobs, a Government Adjustment (1927) alien apportioned catch whereby the non-Brahmins were to accept 42 % of the posts accessible and Muslims 17 %.

Post Independence, catch was connected to abandoned the constitutionally accustomed beggared categories, such as the SCs, the STs and the Astern Classes. Abstracted allocation for Muslims was additionally withdrawn; rather assorted communities amid Muslims advised astern were included in the account of Astern Classes. The Sattanathan Agency (1970) accustomed the 1951 categorisation, it articular 105 castes/communities as backward, and recommended 31 % reservation, admitting 18 % was larboard for the SCs and STs. Tamil speaking Muslim groups, such as Labbais, Deccani Muslims and others were included in the astern list. In 1980, 31 % allocation for astern classes was aloft to 50 % demography the absolute to 68 %.

Following the recommendations of the Ambasankar Commission(1982) the astern classes were breach into Astern Castes(BCs), Best Astern Classses(MBCs) and Denotified Communities. The breakthrough of catch currently is 69 %; far aloft the Supreme Court absolute of 50 %. The Tamil Nadu Astern Classes, Appointed Castes and Appointed Tribes (Reservation of Seats in Educational Institution and of accessories or posts in the Casework beneath the State) Act, 1993 was included in the 9th Schedule through the 76th alteration of the Constitution.

Bihar Model

The ‘Karpuri formula’ as it is bargain alleged allows for the bifurcation of the chic astern classes into its avant-garde section, the Added Astern Classes (OBCs) and about added deprived, the Best Astern Classes (MBCs). The aboriginal aloft accomplishment to accept the plight of astern classes in Bihar was undertaken aback the Mungeri Lal Agency was constituted in 1971. In its address submitted in 1975, the Agency recommended the bifurcation of the astern classes into Added Astern Classes (OBCs) and Best Astern Classes (MBCs). The OBC account independent 128 castes and the MBC account had 93 castes groups. The Karpoori Thakur government in 1978 accustomed the allocation fabricated by the Mungeri Lal Commission. For the purposes of recruitments to jobs, 8 % was set abreast for the OBCs, 12 % for the MBCs, 14 % for the SCs, 10 % for the STs, 3 % for the women and accession 3 % for the economically backward. Afterwards the abstraction out of Jharkhand from Bihar, the aloft arrangement was hardly amended. The ST allocation was bargain to one %; the SC allocation was now anchored at 15 %, 13 % for OBCs, 18 % for the MBCs and 3 % for astern amount women. Muslim amount groups, depending on their akin of backwardness, accept been included either in the OBC or in the MBC list. While 9 Muslim groups are in the state’s OBC list, 27 of them anatomy allotment of the MBC list. The three altered models for acknowledging action for the Muslims/ Muslim backwards, as abundant above, can be abbreviated as:

a. Catch of seats for the absolute Muslim association (excluding the buttery layer): Kerala and Karnataka.

b. Catch on the abject of astern caste/biradari but best of the Muslim groups included accoutrement 95 % of Muslim population: Tamil Nadu

c. Bifurcation of OBCs into backwards and best backwards (MBCs), best of the Muslim backwards in the MBC list: Bihar

Click actuality for Table 10.1 About Catch shares/Quotas for Accessible Employment: All India and Aloft States

5. Muslim OBCs Not Included in the Accompaniment and Axial Account of OBCs

Reservations for OBCs has a best history in the states than at the Centre. As the recommendations of the Mandal Agency came to be accepted, the Axial account of OBCs, in the antecedent phase, was able by employing the assumption of ‘commonality’. Thus, abandoned those castes/communities listed both in the accompaniment account and additionally in the account able by the Mandal Agency were included in the Axial list. It is not hasty accordingly that a cardinal of castes/communities that had either been listed abandoned in the Mandal account or abandoned in the accompaniment account were larboard out. This alterity was accepted to be apparent already a abiding body, namely, the Civic Astern Classes Agency (NCBC) was formed.[18] The NCBC formed in 1993, has issued a set of guidelines based on social, bread-and-butter and educational indicators, for castes/communities to be included in the Axial account of OBCs. The alterity amid the two lists, Axial and State, is still evident. This is a accepted complaint and not bedfast to the Muslims alone. There are abounding OBC groups, irrespective of their religion, that are present in the Accompaniment account but missing in the Axial list. Madhya Pradesh, for instance, has 91 amusing groups listed as OBCs in the account recommended by the Accompaniment Astern Classes Commission, but abandoned 65 such groups accept activate access in the Axial list. Uttar Pradesh has 79 castes in the accompaniment OBC list, but abandoned 74 in the Axial list, in Rajasthan there are 74 castes in the accompaniment account but abandoned 65 accept been accorded OBC cachet in the Axial list.

Such alterity additionally applies in the case of Muslim OBCs. In Madhya Pradesh, for example, there are 37 communities listed in the accompaniment account as Islamic groups, however, abandoned 27 of them are activate in the Axial list. In Bihar, afterwards the contempo afterlight of the list, there are 17 OBC groups that accept not activate abode in the axial list. Six of them are abandoned Muslim, namely, (i) Faqir/Diwan, (ii) Julaha/Ansari (the analogue Momin is in the Axial List), (iii) Itrfarosh/Gadheri/Itpaj/Ibrahimi, (iv) Jat, (v) Gadaria and (vi) Surajpuri. In Uttar Pradesh, two Muslim groups-Mirshikar and Nanbai-have not activate access in the Axial list. In Gujarat, Muslim groups such as Jilaya, Tariya-tai, Mansuri, Arab, Sumra, Tarak, Kalal and Bahvaiya are listed in the State’s astern account but not in the Axial list. Similarly abounding Muslim groups in Maharashtra such as Mansooris, Pan Faroshs, Ataar, Sanpagarudi, Muslim Madari, Muslim Gawli, Darwesi, Hashmi, Nalband amid others accept not activate access in the Axial list.

The lists of OBCs able by the accompaniment governments accept additionally absent abounding underprivileged castes and communities. There are a few groups amid Muslims that accept activate abode in the Axial account but are yet to be included in the Accompaniment lists. Kalwars in Bihar, Mansooris in Rajasthan, Atishbazs in Uttar Pradesh, Rayeens, Kalwars, Rangwas and Churihars in West Bengal are examples of such Muslim groups. There are still a cardinal of Muslim groups that accept neither been included in the Accompaniment account nor in the Axial list. These groups can be articular application the admonition calm by Anthropological Assay of India beneath its People of India Project. In Gujarat for instance, the Project activate 85 Muslim communities, of which at atomic 76 are non-ashraf. In the Axial list, however, abandoned 22 of them accept activate entry, admitting in the Accompaniment list, there are abandoned 27 Muslim groups. In Bihar, according to the Project, there are 37 castes/communities that can be counted as non-ashraf, however, abandoned 23 are in the Axial list. In Uttar Pradesh, the Project lists 67 communities amid Muslims, 61 of whom are anatomic groups. Both the Accompaniment and the Axial lists of OBCs accommodate abandoned 32 of them. 

While the Ashrafs and the Ajlafs absorb the accomplished and the boilerplate positions in the Muslim amusing structure, the Arzals are the everyman absolute of those accepting agnate acceptable action as their Hindu counterparts in the account of Schedule Castes. It is broadly believed that these communities are converts from the ‘untouchables’ amid Hindus. Change in adoration did not accompany any change in their amusing or bread-and-butter status. Because of the stigma absorbed to their acceptable occupation, they ache amusing exclusion. Admitting this, they accept been beggared of SC cachet accessible to their Hindu counterparts.

Their exclusion from the SC account dates aback to 1936 aback the Imperial (Scheduled Caste) Adjustment abandoned SC cachet to Christians and Buddhists of agnate origins. Depressed classes amid the Muslims such as Halalkhors were included in the account but were barred from availing the benefits. This colonial decree remained the abject on which the government of Independent India, through the Constitutional (Scheduled Caste) Order, 1950, has denied them the cachet in accordance with the deprivations that they face. The Order, however, has been adapted twice; already in 1956 to accommodate the SCs amid the Sikhs and afterwards in 1990 to accommodate the neo-Buddhists. Thus, about abandoned the Muslims and Christians of such origins abide to be denied the status. As a result, such Muslim groups namely, gadheris, gorkuns, mehtars or halalkhors, Muslim dhobis, bakhos, nats, pamarias, lalbegis and others abide bankrupt and marginalized. Their admittance in the OBC account has bootless to accomplish any appulse as they are clubbed with the added avant-garde boilerplate castes.

Many accept argued that the Adjustment of 1950 is inconsistent with Commodity 14, 15, 16 and 25 of the Constitution that agreement adequation of opportunity, abandon of censor and assure the citizens from bigotry by the Accompaniment on area of religion, amount or creed.

6. Empiric Situation

In this section, attack has been fabricated to quantify the about deprivations that Muslims in accepted and Muslim-OBCs in accurate face. Altered variables accept been employed, for instance, macho and changeable assignment participation, representation in assorted levels and sectors of accessible employment, salaries and wages, per capita income, accident of poverty, burghal and rural acreage holding, about allotment in apprenticeship etc to ascertain the cachet of Muslim OBCs vis-à-vis their Hindu counterparts and additionally the non-OBC Muslims or Muslim-General. Best of these variables announce that Muslim-OBCs are decidedly beggared in allegory to Hindu-OBCs.

6.1 Citizenry Administration of Muslim OBCs

For chargeless citizenry distribution, the decennial demography operation in India is the best aboveboard source. In our assignment of chargeless the allotment of Muslim-OBCs, however, the Demography exercise is inadequate, as aback Independence, archive beyond castes or biraderies has been shelved. Such a accommodation has abandoned led to speculations, claims and adverse claims that abridgement precision. In some of the states however, the accompaniment astern classes commissions accept fabricated attempts to amount out the citizenry of assorted castes listed as OBC in their agnate states. But one charge remember, best of such surveys date aback to added than a decade or two. Further, aback all the accompaniment governments or accompaniment akin astern classes commissions accept not undertaken such a survey, no all-India appraisal can be fabricated from them.

Relying on the abstracts provided by the 1931 Census, The Mandal Agency estimated the OBC citizenry of the country to be 52 % of the absolute citizenry of the country. It affected the allotment of OBCs amid non-Hindu (Muslims, Christians and Sikhs) religious groups additionally to be in the aforementioned proportion. Appropriately the allotment of non-Hindu OBCs in the absolute citizenry of the country was projected at 8.40 %. Accustomed the actuality that the 1931 abject is itself contentious, this appraisal needs to be added examined. The Mandal appraisal is additionally capricious because a ample cardinal of castes/communities that were included in the Mandal account accept not yet activate abode in the Axial account of OBCs. Added recently, the Civic Sample Assay Organization (NSSO), from its 55th annular onwards, has amorphous accouterment selfreporting abstracts beyond the ample chic of OBCs amid assorted religious groups. Thus, the allotment of Muslim OBCs in population, application or apprenticeship can now be aggregate from it. The calculation of alone castes and their share, however, is still not available. In our assay of citizenry allotment of Muslim OBCs we will abundantly depend on the Civic Sample Survey, 61st Round.

National Sample Survey, 61sth Round

The assay abstracts on OBCs avalanche abbreviate of the appraisal fabricated by the Mandal Commission; also, there is ample aberration in the abstracts provided by the two surveys, 55th and 61st round. Table 10.2 indicates that those advertisement as OBCs amid Muslims aggregate 40.7 % of the Muslim population, as per the 61st round. Compared to the 55th annular aback Muslim OBCs were appear to be abandoned 31.7%, the advance is of 9 %. The arrangement charcoal the aforementioned in both rural and burghal areas. As the NSSO provides self-reporting data, this abandoned reflects either an added acquaintance of their OBC cachet amid the Muslim OBCs or absolute afterlight of the OBC account aback the aftermost annular of survey. The advance in the citizenry allotment of Hindu OBCs is additionally noticeable. The citizenry allotment of SC/ST in the absolute Hindu citizenry charcoal constant in both the surveys. The chic SC/ST and the allowances associated with it has a best history, added than 50 years, and accordingly the amusing groups included, to a ample extent, are acquainted of their status.

Click actuality for Table 10.2: Administration of Citizenry by SRCs

State-wise Administration of OBC Population 

Table 10.3 provides the accompaniment astute administration of Hindu and Muslim OBC citizenry in the country. In the states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Haryana, Muslim OBCs aggregate about their absolute Muslim population. In Kerala, this is mainly because of the actuality that Mapillas who aggregate added than 90 % of the Muslim citizenry of the Accompaniment accept been included in the Axial list. Similarly, Meo Muslims, an OBC group, forms the aggregate of the Muslim citizenry in Haryana. The Hindi-Urdu belt absolute Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Jharkhand additionally has the majority of the Muslims listed as OBCs. On the added hand, in the two states of West Bengal and Assam, both with abundant citizenry of Muslims, the admeasurement of OBCs is miniscule. Thus, the allowances absorbed to OBC cachet is denied to best Muslims residing in these states.

Regional assay reveals cogent inter-state differences. In 14, out of the 20 states for which abstracts are presented, the allotment of Muslim OBCs has risen in the 61st annular as compared to the antecedent annular of survey. The access is the accomplished in Rajasthan (32 allotment points), followed by Bihar (23 allotment points) and Uttar Pradesh (18 allotment points). A abatement in their allotment is empiric in West Bengal, Assam, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Delhi and Himachal Pradesh. While the change is acutely aerial in Delhi (24 allotment points), it is bordering in West Bengal.

Click actuality for Table 10.3: Administration of Citizenry According to SRCs by States

The latest annular of NSSO’s assay (61st Round) estimates the OBC citizenry allotment in the absolute citizenry at 40.4 %. Of these, 34 % is the allotment of Hindu-OBCs and the actual 6.4 of M-OBCs. In the absolute OBC citizenry of the country, Muslim-OBCs accept a allotment of 15.7 %. This, as we will see below, is not reflected in their representation either in accessible application or in educational institutions.

6.2 The Schedule Association Basic amid Muslims

Unlike the chic Appointed Caste, the chic Appointed Association irrespective of the religious amalgamation of the associates of the association is advantaged for reservation. The archetype followed for blueprint of a community, as appointed tribes are break of archaic traits, characteristic culture, bounded isolation, backwardness of acquaintance with the association at large, and backwardness. The belief is not spelt out in the Constitution but has become able-bodied established. The Muslim basic of ST citizenry is actual small. According to 1991 Census, it accounts for abandoned 0.25 % of the absolute ST citizenry of the country. The accomplished admeasurement of Muslims declared as STs is activate in Lakshadweep area Muslims aggregate the absolute ST citizenry (99.74 %). Muslim allotment in the ST citizenry of Himachal Pradesh (7 %) is additionally absolutely significant. Elsewhere, Muslim STs are miniscule in numbers. The Muslim ST citizenry is abandoned 1,70,428 admitting the absolute citizenry of the STs stands at 6,77,58,285 (1991 Census). (See Appendix Table 10.1) It charge be acclaimed that while STs get all entitlements irrespective of their religious backgrounds, all Muslims of affiliated accomplishments do not get this benefit. There are abounding cases of claims of ST cachet by Muslim groups that accept remained unattended.

6.3 Educational Conditions

Literacy Levels

The best accustomed indicator of educational accomplishment is literacy. In the absence of any added antecedent accouterment abstracts on the articulacy levels of OBCs, in accurate Muslim-OBCs, the Committee has acclimated NSSO abstracts to compute articulacy levels. Articulacy levels amid the citizenry age-old 6-years and aloft shows bordering differences at the all-India akin (Table 10.4). However, disaggregated assay by abode of abode acknowledge aciculate differences beyond SRCs in burghal areas; Muslims, and in accurate Muslim-OBCs, are astern abaft Hindu-OBCs. The articulacy levels amid the Muslim-OBCs is the atomic in rural areas as able-bodied but the aberration is not as aciculate amid them and added SRCs in burghal areas.

Click actuality for Table 10.4: Articulacy Levels of SRCs by Abode of Residence

Children Not Accessory Schools

Almost bisected of the accouchement age-old 6-12 years are not currently accessory school. It can be apparent that the admeasurement of Muslim OBC accouchement not accessory schools age-old 12 years or beneath is abundant college than that of this amount (Fig. 10.2). While the aberration amid Muslim-OBCs and Muslim-Gen is not apparent (both are about 55%), the aberration in non-attendance akin amid Hindu-OBCs and Muslim-OBCs (49%, compared to 56%) is significant.

Levels of Education

Table 10.5 presents the admeasurement of bodies in anniversary SRC classified according to the accomplished akin of apprenticeship attained. A allegory beyond SRCs suggests that the educational levels of Muslim-OBCs and Muslim-Gen are lower than those of Hindu-OBCs. In general, educational levels amid Muslim-OBCs are lower than the added two SRCs; the benightedness is the accomplished amid this accumulation and a lower admeasurement of bodies in this accumulation complete academy apprenticeship or undertake alum studies.

Click actuality for Table 10.5: Administration of Bodies (aged 6 years) in Anniversary SRC by Levels of Education

Achievements in College Education 

Finally, the cachet of the three SRCs is advised with account to their ability in the acreage of college education. Three levels of apprenticeship accept been acclimated for this purpose – accepted graduates and above, abstruse graduates and abstruse authority and affidavit courses.

It can be apparent that all the three SRCs accept a lower admeasurement of bodies captivation a technical/non-technical amount or abstruse diploma/certificate compared to the Hindu-OBCs. Except in the case of abstruse diploma/certificate courses, Muslim-OBC has the everyman akin of achievements in college education; in general, Hindu-OBCs do bigger than the added two SRCs. Thus, in agreement of college apprenticeship also, the Muslim-OBCs lag abaft the added SRCs namely Hindu-OBCs and Muslim-Gen.

Click actuality for Table 10.6: Admeasurement of Bodies age-old 20 years with College Apprenticeship in Anniversary SRC

6.4 Application Status

The accomplishment levels in apprenticeship of a association get reflected in its application status.[19] The about low levels of accomplishment in apprenticeship by the Muslim community, in allegory with civic averages, and alike Hindu- OBCs, can be accepted to aftereffect in appropriately low cachet in the labour market. The application cachet of workers of the three SRCs is analyzed application altered indicators, qualitative and quantitative, based primarily on NSSO 61st Annular data. In addition, the Committee has additionally acclimated abstracts from the beforehand 55th Annular assay (1999-2000) on earnings. Finally, abstracts distinctively furnished to the Committee by ministries of the Axial Government, Axial Accessible Area Undertakings (PSU), Axial Aegis agencies, Accompaniment Accessible Service Commissions, and Academic Institutions provides admired admonition on the representation of these SRCs in what can be referred to as an aristocratic sector.

Work Accord and Unemployment Rates

The assignment accord amount [20] (WPR) amid the 15-64 year citizenry shows the attendance of a aciculate aberration amid Hindu-OBCs (67%) and the two Muslim SRCs (about 55%), with WPR amid both categories of Muslims actuality essentially lower at the all India akin (Fig. 10.3, see additionally Appendix Table 10.2). The aberration amid Muslim-Gen and Muslim- OBCs, however, is bordering (56% and 54% at the all India level). This aberration can be empiric in both rural and burghal areas and amid females. Aural the macho population, however, differences in the WPR are marginal.

According to the NSSO 61st Annular data, while 9.2% of Muslim-OBCs of all age groups were unemployed in 2004-05, the unemployment ante were lower at 7.5 and 7.7 per cent appropriately for Hindu-OBCs and Muslim-Gen. Agnate differences were empiric for both men and women and in rural and burghal areas [21] suggesting that in general, unemployment ante were the accomplished amid Muslim OBCs as compared to the added two SRCs beneath application here.

Share of Workers in the Academic Sector

The area in which the workers are affianced is an important indicator of the socio-economic cachet of the community. Fig. 10.4 acutely indicates that the admeasurement of Muslim-Gen and Muslim-OBC workers affianced in the academic area is beneath the agnate admeasurement for According to the NSSO 61st Annular data, aural the academic sector, the allotment of Muslim-OBCs in government/ PSU jobs was abundant lower than those of Hindu-OBCs and Muslim-Gen. While 7.2% of Hindu-OBC workers in rural areas were active in such jobs, the shares of such workers amid Muslim-Gen and Muslim-OBCs were 5.8 and 3.4 per cent respectively. The differences in burghal areas were bluff with Hindu-OBCs (11.3%) abundant advanced of Muslim-Gen (7%) and Muslim-OBCs (3.5%). The inferior application bearings of the Muslim-OBCs vis-à-vis the added two SRCs is additionally reflected in the actuality that a abundant abate admeasurement of workers amid them are affianced in approved wage/salaried jobs, abnormally in burghal areas.The admeasurement of workers affianced in approved application in rural areas ranged amid 6-7 % for all the three SRCs. However,in burghal areas, the accord of Muslim OBCs (20.4%) in approved jobs was abundant lower than that of Muslim-Gen (31.2%) and Hindu-OBCs (36.4%).

In general, therefore, Muslim-OBCs are astern abaft Muslim-Gen and Hindu- OBC categories in agreement of accord in the academic area and jobs that accommodate regularity of application (both waged and salaried).

Differentials in Earnings

Workers can be disconnected into two ample categories-casual and regular. Approved workers can be added subdivided into those who assignment in accessible or clandestine sectors. Table 10.7 shows that there is no cogent aberration in accomplishment paid to SRCs. Interestingly, accomplishment accustomed by Muslim-OBCs are college than that accustomed by Muslim-Gen and Hindu-OBCs. This can be empiric for both macho and changeable workers.

Click actuality for Table 10.7: Boilerplate Daily Accomplishment and Salary for Casual and Approved Workers (Rupees)

Salaries paid to Hindu-OBC and Muslim advisers in both the accessible and clandestine sectors are lower than the boilerplate salaries. Muslim-Gen advisers are hardly bigger off than Hindu-OBC employees. Muslim-OBC advisers accept salaries that are decidedly lower than the added two SRCs. This is accurate for both the accessible as able-bodied as the clandestine area appropriately advertence that added Muslim OBCs tend to be in low salaried jobs as compared to added SRCs.

Among macho approved workers, Muslim-OBCs are about added beggared than added two SRCs; differences amid Muslim-Gen and Hindu-OBCs, however, are marginal. In the case of women workers, Muslim-OBC workers are beneath beggared in the accessible area vis-à-vis the added two SRCs; in the clandestine sector, on the added hand, they are beggared to a greater extent.

Distribution of Workers According to Abode of Work

The administration of macho workers by abode of assignment is not actual altered beyond SRCs. A ample admeasurement acceptance to all these SRCs either assignment in employer’s enterprises or one’s own enterprise/dwelling. A few differentials beyond SRCs can be noticed. For example, a about beyond admeasurement of Muslim-OBC workers assignment in employer’s action while lower in architecture sites (See Table 10.8).

Click actuality for Table 10.8: Administration of Macho Workers by Abode of Assignment for Anniversary SRCs

The aggregate of women workers in all SRCs assignment in their own dwelling. However, the admeasurement of such workers amid Muslims, abnormally Muslim OBCs is college (See Table 10.9)

Click actuality for Table 10.9: Administration of Changeable Workers by Abode of Assignment for Anniversary SRCs

Muslim OBCs in Accessible Employment

Data calm by the Committee from assorted Accessible Area Undertakings (PSUs), Railways and the axial aegis agencies accept been acclimated to assay representation of SRCs in accessible area employment. Besides, abstracts on the absolute advisers of assorted axial and accompaniment universities accept additionally been analyzed. The Committee’s estimates announce that while out of every hundred workers about eleven are Hindu-OBCs, abandoned three are Muslim-Gen and one is a Muslim-OBC. OBCs, abandoned three are Muslim-Gen and one is a Muslim- OBC

Click actuality for Table 10.10: Representation in Accessible Employment

Table 10.10 summarizes the bearings in three axial government organizations, employing a absolute of over 26 lakh workers (see additionally Appendix Table 10.3 for details).

Relative denial of Muslim-OBCs is accomplished in the Railways (employing added than 14 lakh workers) and in Axial PSUs (for which the Committee has accustomed abstracts pertaining to about 7 lakh workers). Representation is additionally low amid candidates recommended for alternative by Accompaniment Accessible Service Commissions (SPSC). Muslim-Gen are additionally decidedly under-represented in all sectors, and decidedly in Axial Aegis Agencies, Axial PSUs, candidates recommended by SPSC and Universities (both teaching and non-teaching posts). While Hindu-OBCs are additionally under-represented, denial is beneath than that of Muslim-OBCs in bristles out of the six agencies, and beneath than that of Muslim-Gen in three out of the six agencies.

Representation in Selected Axial and Accompaniment Institutions and Undertakings

A brief accessory at Table 10.10 and Appendix Table 10.3 makes it bright that all the three SRCs, Hindu-OBCs, Muslim-OBCs and Muslim-Gen, are under-represented aback their allotment in application is compared with that in population. Hindu OBCs aggregate 34% of the citizenry but in none of the Axial Organisations is their allotment added than 12%. This includes alike the everyman level, i.e, accumulation D employees. Muslim OBCs whose allotment in the citizenry is 6.4 %, accept beneath than one percent attendance in these organizations, with the barring of axial aegis armament (3.6%). In the college echelons of these services, they are about absent. In the axial aegis armament (including BSF, CRPF, CISF and others), Muslim OBCs are bigger represented than Muslim-Gen (3.6%, compared to 1% Muslim-Gen). They about still abatement abbreviate of their allotment in population. It is noteworthy that in the case of Muslims, alike the non-OBC area of their citizenry is decidedly underrepresented (varying from 3% to 4.5%).

Representation in Accompaniment Services

In the states the bearings is bigger for the Hindu OBCs (Table 10.10 and Appendix Table 10.3). Although still abbreviate of commensurable representation, their allotment in the aerial and boilerplate levels is abundant college than that in the axial organizations. However, a ample admeasurement of the Hindu OBCs acquisition application at the Accumulation D level. While Muslim- Gen has a analogously bigger representation in Accumulation A and D posts of accompaniment services, their representation in boilerplate levels posts is marginal. Muslim OBCs accept bigger allotment at the Accumulation A level, but their attendance is bush at all added levels.

Representation in Universities

Out of about 1.5 lakh bodies alive in Universities, the representation of Hindu OBCs amid adroitness associates is added or beneath the aforementioned as their allotment in citizenry (Fig. 10.5). Muslims, both OBC and non-OBCs, assume to accept abandoned a badge attendance in the universities.

This assay indicates that while Hindu-OBCs accept been able to acquire the allowances of catch of posts in universities, the representation of both Muslim-OBCs and Muslim-Gen in altered sectors charcoal grossly inadequate.

6.5 Bread-and-butter Status

The educational and application cachet of a association calm accord to the bread-and-butter cachet of a community. In this sub-section, the bread-and-butter cachet of the SRCs is analyzed application altered bread-and-butter indicators. The best important of such indicators, decidedly in developing economies with ample rural bases, is acreage backing and amount (as a proxy for income) levels. Based on the latter, it is accessible to appraisal the accident of abjection and the admeasurement of asperity amid the three socio-religious categories (SRCs).

Incidence of Poverty

The accident of abjection is abstinent by the admeasurement of poor bodies (referred to as Head Calculation Ratio). In Fig. 10.6, all India estimates appearance that the accident of abjection is accomplished amid Muslim-OBCs (38), followed by Muslim-General (35). In adverse the admeasurement of poor amid Hindu-OBCs (27) is lower than alike the civic boilerplate (28).

The college accident of abjection amid Muslim-OBCs and Muslim-Gen, compared to the civic boilerplate and Hindu-OBCs, can be empiric in both burghal and rural areas. The aberration amid Muslim OBCs and Hindu-OBCs is decidedly arresting in burghal areas. The admeasurement of poor Muslim-Gen bodies is about 9 allotment credibility college than amid Hindu-OBCs. The Muslim-OBCs were alike worse off with the allotment of poor bodies actuality 14 allotment credibility college than that of Hindu-OBCs.

Monthly Per Capita Amount (MPCE)

Click actuality for Table 10.11: Boilerplate Monthly per Capita Amount by Abode of Abode and SRCs

The MPCE of the three SRCs is abundant lower than the civic boilerplate (Fig. 10.11). Amid the three SRCs, the MPCE of Muslim-OBCs is the least. The action of Muslim-Gen is hardly bigger off than the added two SRCs as reflected in their MPCE. In burghal areas, also, the MPCE of the three SRCs is lower than the civic average. As was the case with abjection levels, however, the aberration amid SRCs is arresting in burghal areas. The MPCE of both Muslim groups is abundant lower than the civic average. Moreover, the MPCE of Muslim-OBCs is abundant lower as compared with Muslim-Gen in burghal areas. In rural areas, differences amid MPCE of SRCs are narrower. The MPCE of Muslim-OBCs is about the aforementioned as the civic average, while MPCE of Muslim-Gen is hardly lower than that of Hindu-OBCs.

Inequalities Amid SRCs

Click actuality for Table 10.12: Asperity Abstinent Application Gini Coefficient

At the all-India level, there are bordering differences in asperity levels amid the three SRCs actuality analysed (Table 10.12).[22] Overall, the asperity levels are somewhat college amid Muslim-OBCs as compared to added SRCs. Accustomed the altercation above, college levels of abjection is accumulated with about college levels of inequality.

Ownership and Boilerplate Size of Acreage Holdings

Asset captivation of altered SRCs is an important basis of development. While there is no all-India akin abstracts antecedent on asset holdings, NSSO does accommodate admonition on acreage owned. Acreage backing aggregate an important anatomy of asset captivation for the citizenry in developing countries, decidedly in rural areas (Figure 10.7). Boilerplate acreage backing of Hindu-OBCs are acutely abundant bigger (about twice) than that of Muslim-OBCs and Muslim-Gen. In actuality the boilerplate acreage backing of Hindu-OBCs (1.9 acres) are college than alike that of the civic boilerplate (1.7 acres). The differences in boilerplate acreage backing of Muslim-Gen and Muslim-OBCs are about the aforementioned (1.0 and 0.7 acres, respectively).

7. Concluding Comments

As per the latest annular of NSSO survey, Muslim OBCs aggregate 40.7 % of the absolute Muslim population. They are additionally a ample basic (15.7%) of the absolute OBC citizenry of the country. The NSSO assay about fails to accommodate disaggregated abstracts beyond alone castes/ groups included in the OBC lists of the Centre and the assorted states. As a result, intra- OBC differentials forth castes/groups in agreement of acute indicators such as educational accomplishment and application allotment cannot be estimated. The Committee accordingly is of the assessment that archive of castes/groups as allotment of the decennial Demography exercise is analytical to appraise the candid administration of allowances meant for groups included in the category, OBC.

The capital allegation about the bread-and-butter and educational cachet of the three SRCs are abbreviated in Table 10.13. It is important to accentuate that Muslims in India are not a monolith, and this is what our analyses beyond assorted indicators of animal development additionally suggests. While Hindu-OBCs abide to be about beggared in agreement of the all-India data, the Muslim association as a accomplished is astern abaft Hindu-OBCs. However, overall, the altitude of Muslim-OBCs are worse than those of Muslim-Gen. The abysmally low representation of Muslim OBCs suggests that the allowances of entitlements meant for the astern classes are yet to ability them.

To analyze the differentials beyond the SRCs further, an basic exercise was undertaken to appraise if the accommodation of Muslim-OBC, Muslim-Gen and Hindu- OBC alter decidedly in aerial and low assets groups (See Appendix Table 10.4). It is noteworthy that, as compared to added SRCs (except SC/ST), the allotment of Muslim-OBCs and Muslim-Gen citizenry is decidedly college in low assets groups. Aural the Muslim community, a beyond allotment of Muslim-OBCs abatement in the low assets chic as compared to Muslim-Gen. In contrast, abundant abate allotment of Muslim bodies accord to the aerial assets category. Interestingly, a beyond allotment of SCs/STs accord to the aerial assets accumulation as compared to Muslims. Aural Muslims, Muslim-OBCs are hardly astern abaft the Muslim-Gen in the aerial assets group.

Based on the arguments and abstracts presented here, it is analytic to advance that Muslims in India, in agreement of their amusing structure, abide of three groups-ashrafs, ajlafs and arzals. The three groups crave altered types of acknowledging action. The added group, ajlafs/OBCs, charge added absorption which could be agnate to that of Hindu-OBCs. The third group, those with agnate acceptable action as that of the SCs, may be appointed as Best Astern Classes (MBCs) as they charge circuitous measures, including reservation, as they are ‘cumulatively oppressed’.

Click actuality for Table 10.13: Educational, Application and Bread-and-butter Cachet of Muslim – OBCs,Muslim – Gen and Hindu – OBCs – A Allusive Picture


1. VII CAD, 6922. All India Reporter 1951, S.C. 2293. All India Reporter 1960, Mys. 338.4. All India Reporter, 1963 SC 6495. All India Reporter 1968 S.C 1012 at 10156. All India Reporter, 1972, S.C. 13757. Supreme Court Cases, 1992, p. 2178. Ahmad (1977), p. 99. Demography of India, 1901, p. 543.10. Ibid. p. 544.11. D’ Souza (1973), pp. 49-5112. Saheb (2003)13. Bhatty (1973)14. Afterwards amendments were fabricated for Mazhabi Sikhs (1956) and Neo-Buddhists (1990).15. Cited in Address of the Added Astern Classes Agency (Vol. I), 1980, p. 316. Ibid., p. 55.17. Balaji vs the Accompaniment of Mysore, All India Reporter, pp. 649-64.18. Beneath Area 9(1) of the Civic Agency for Astern Classes Act, 1993 the Agency shall appraise requests for admittance of any chic of citizens as a astern chic in the Axial Account of Astern Classes and apprehend complaints of over-inclusion or under-inclusion of any astern chic in the lists and breakable such admonition to the Axial Government as it deems appropriate.19. This is not to abjure the circuitous two way linkages amid application and education. For instance, defended application provides parents with the assets to advance in apprenticeship of their children, as able-bodied as creating bread-and-butter incentives to education.20. This is the admeasurement of bodies age-old 15-64 years who are affianced in nay bread-and-butter action (working), either as arch or accessory activity.22. Asperity levels are abstinent application the Gini Coefficient. The lower the amount of this coefficient, the beneath is the admeasurement of inequality.

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