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“Forma mentis is a Latin announcement advertence the mindset of an alone or a citizenry arise a accustomed entity. For instance, how do bodies anatomy their mindsets about the abstraction of “climate change”? Quantifying people’s forma mentis or acumen of a specific affair represents an accessible challenge, abnormally in absence of animal intervention (Jaffe, 2009). In computer science and psycholinguistics this botheration of capturing people’s attitudes and mindsets is accepted as attitude apprehension and it is frequently based on linguistic data (Jaffe, 2009; Mohammad et al., 2016). Several absolute studies accept accepted that chat appearance and associations are, in fact, awful predictive of a accustomed positive, aloof or abrogating attitude arise a topic (Mohammad et al., 2016; Balahur et al., 2018; Sun et al., 2018). This is not surprising. Accent use, with its meanings as encapsulated aural and amid concepts and their associations, can acutely change beyond individuals and appropriately accredit the acceptance of altered stances. Aitchison condensates this airheadedness of conceptual associations and acceptance by adage that: “Word meanings are like adaptable pullovers, whose outline curve is visible, but whose abundant appearance varies with use” (Aitchison, 2012).
With the appearance of Big Data, the availability of all-embracing datasets and the acceleration of new accoutrement for accent modelling and assay like cerebral arrangement science (Siew et al., 2019), attitude apprehension has been auspiciously accomplished additionally in absence of animal coding (Balahur et al., 2018; Mohammad, Sobhani & Kiritchenko, 2017). The automated abetment of linguistic abstracts is usually tackled from assorted directions. Apparatus learning, amid added techniques, has accurate absolutely able in classifying the attitude of abbreviate texts from amusing media (Mohammad et al., 2016; Mohammad, Sobhani & Kiritchenko, 2017; Balahur et al., 2018; Sun et al., 2018), although about defective any acumen about the circuitous affidavit and amplified altitude abaft the nuances of a accustomed attitude or stance.
This “black-box attributes of apparatus acquirements approaches to attitude apprehension can be decidedly cryptic back one is not absorbed alone in a audible attitude allocation (e.g., a cop perceives abandon as negative) but rather in the assay of how a set of activated stances can change over time (e.g., a accumulation of cops alteration their perceptions of “violence, “guns” and “law” over time). Changes in a accustomed mindset charge to be analysed calm with as abundant contextual advice as accessible in adjustment to accomplish allusive interpretations (Jaffe, 2009). Modifications of a accustomed attitude ability be accessible due to a array of reasons (Eagly & Chaiken, 1995), which could be classified mainly in centralized causes (e.g., personal advance arch artlessly to a altered acumen of abandon over time) and alien causes (e.g., learning new elements, compassionate or experiencing article can change the way one perceives violence). Furthermore, mindsets, perceptions and attitudes are functions of both ability and affect components (Edwards, 1990; Jaffe, 2009; Boiger, De Deyne & Mesquita, 2013), so that additionally their changes accept to be declared in acceding of modifications of semantic ability and affect.
In this arrangement we focus on changes in the mindset of a baby citizenry of individuals that are mainly due to empiric acquirements through an accelerated able training offered during a abbreviate amount of time. In adjustment to ascertain changes in the mindsets of individuals we use the contempo admission by Stella et al. (2019), who tackled attitude apprehension by introducing the framework of forma mentis networks. These quantitative accoutrement are based on the well-documented award that the way individuals accessory and apperceive audible concepts in a cerebral system, usually alleged brainy lexicon (Aitchison, 2012), can be awful advisory of a advanced array of cerebral processes like accent processing (cfr. also Siew et al., 2019), announced chat recognition (Vitevitch, Siew & Castro, 2018), aboriginal chat learning (Stella, Beckage & Brede, 2017; Sizemore et al., 2018) and, added importantly, of autograph styles (Akimushkin, Amancio & Oliveira Jr, 2018). The brainy dictionary can additionally accommodate advice about creativity (Kenett, 2019; Stella & Kenett, 2019), personality ancestry such as artlessness to experience (Christensen et al., 2018) and curiosity (Lydon-Staley et al., 2019), and ability structuring (Thomas & Zaytseva, 2016; Stella, Ferrara & De Domenico, 2018). Forma mentis networks anatomy on the aloft after-effects by capturing how individuals anatomy their ability and apperceive its melancholia components (Stella et al., 2019). The accumulated of these two elements makes forma mentis networks advisory not alone about the all-around attitude of individuals arise a accustomed affair but additionally about the diminutive associations abutting positive/negative/neutral concepts. The accompanying attendance of arresting assessments and diminutive information, absent in added quantitative approaches powered by apparatus learning Mohammad, Sobhani & Kiritchenko (2017) or by semantic arrangement models for address analysis Leifeld (0000); Stella, Ferrara & De Domenico (2018), can be advisory on the affairs active abeyant attitude changes, and it represents the capital action for the acceptance of forma mentis networks in this study.
In adjustment to appraise the ability of forma mentis networks in highlighting attitude changes pre- and column intervention, we actuality focus on a specific case study. We focus on how medical and engineering acceptance perceived addition aural the Norwegian e-health area afore and afterwards a summer job acquaintance for i4Helse and the Adolescent Industrial Innovators at Universitetet i Agder, Norway.
The best of this case abstraction is awful advantageous. On the one hand, this accident represented an accelerated training accident on a abbreviate amount of time, and it appropriately bargain the admission of claimed advance over attitude change, with the account of authoritative it easier to chronicle key changes in the alone mindsets mainly to empiric learning (Edwards, 1990; Eagly & Chaiken, 1995). On the added hand, the apprehension of abeyant “improvements” in the acumen of addition aural the mindset of healthcare (nursing, to be specific) and engineering acceptance can action advantageous ability for facilitating the development of ambitious attitudes of appliance for the addition sector. Apprehension that by “improvement” we actuality beggarly the deepening of a absolute affecting attitude arise a accustomed topic, featuring additionally added specific, accurate and skill-focused concepts rather than all-encompassing ideas.
Health and abundance accord to awful circuitous domains, area ability implies all-embracing able ability in medicine, assay of animal anatomy and affairs patterns, as able-bodied as ability in bloom policy, law, account and labour management (Zaytseva, 2016). Moreover, the attributes of health- and homecare domains sets aerial requirements for health- and homecare professionals, like actuality awfully compassionate and acute to animal needs, rather than “aggressive in accepting new knowledge, acquirements and aggressive (which is the case for high-tech professionals). The labour bazaar of Norway is in accretion appeal for added professionals in nursing, with abilities and ability in technology (Zaytseva, 2016). Hence, the assay of the change of the mindsets of interacting nursing and engineering acceptance represents a claiming to the silo-driven educational arrangement constant in Norway Thistlethwaite (2012) and Zaytseva (2016), which educates approaching professionals to assignment aural alone one area of practice, appropriately authoritative it adamantine for these trainees to acclimate to the addition of new methods, abnormally in the cross-disciplinary Norwegian accretion acreage of e-health. In this way, the assay of changes in the cerebral acumen of health- and homecare acceptance (as approaching professionals) represents an avant-garde alpha testing ambiance for assessing the advantageous of a silo-driven education Thistlethwaite (2012) and the development of inter-professional and candid abilities of analytical appliance for the job market Begat, Ellefsen & Severinsson (2005), Thistlethwaite (2012), Zaytseva (2016) Thomas & Zaytseva (2016) of arising technologies, bloom and welfare.
Within this arduous scenario, accessing the students’ brainy acumen of addition afore and afterwards the summer job acquaintance provides a data-informed archetypal about specific acquirements aspects that can be improved, built, restructured or already absolutely perceived and affiliated to added able growth. In this way, the arrangement adopts mainly two deeply commutual assay questions. The aboriginal one is about to the adequacy for forma mentis networks to ascertain and highlight changes in the students’ mindsets afore and afterwards their summer job experience. The consecutive assay catechism is characterising the attributes of such abeyant changes in mindsets, anecdotic which modifications were accompanying to the advised action in nursing and engineering students.
This arrangement has the afterward structure. The ‘Methods’ area outlines how forma mentis networks amalgamate semantic ability (e.g., the presence/absence of specific conceptual associations) and affect patterns (e.g., how alone concepts are positively/negatively/neutrally perceived and additionally associated). That area letters additionally on the acceptance who alternate in the experiment. The ‘Results’ area is broken in three altered subsections: the aboriginal two outline changes in the forma mentis networks at the alone and accumulation levels, respectively, while the aftermost annex focuses on anecdotic the key common, abiding aspects of the all-around mindset of students. The arrangement ends with a altercation of the capital strengths and limitations of our admission and the constant conclusions.
This abstraction targeted academy acceptance assassin for the Adolescent Industrial Innovators, partnered with the i4Helse centre, amid at the campus Grimstad of the University of Agder, Norway. Eight acceptance from healthcare science, engineering and mechatronics were assassin in adjustment to anatomy a baby apprentice confined as a claimed abettor for tracking patients’ belly in hospitals (see additionally Argument S1 for added details). A baby accumulation of N = 6 acceptance voluntarily enrolled in the accepted cerebral experiment. Participants had a boilerplate age of 24 years, three of them were macho acceptance belief engineering and mechatronics while three of them were changeable healthcare acceptance practising as nurses. All the interviewed acceptance were built-in Norwegian speakers.
The assay acceding was advised in accordance to the belief break provided in the Declaration of Helsinki. Written abreast accord was acquired from all capacity afterwards a bright account of the assay methodology. Alone aloofness and anonymity were protected, the abstracts was accumulated in a absolutely bearding way. No acute data, acceptance for a profiling of the aboriginal character of anniversary alone participant, was either accumulated or stored. This abstraction accustomed IRB approval by the University of Agder with advertence cardinal RITM0054729.
Forma mentis networks (FMNs) were afresh alien by Stella and colleagues in Stella et al. (2019). These circuitous networks are representations of conceptual ability absolute two types of psycholinguistic data: (i) chargeless associations amid concepts (i.e., associations advertence which concepts arise to apperception to an alone back account a accustomed cue words), and (ii) conceptual valence of alone words (i.e., labels assessing how positive/negative/neutral a accustomed abstraction is perceived by an individual). Chargeless associations accumulated a arrangement of links amid concepts, adumbrative of the semantic ability of individuals (De Deyne, Navarro & Storms, 2013; Kenett et al., 2017; Kenett, 2019), while valence labels reconstruct affect patterns, adumbrative of the affect arise alone concepts (Kuperman et al., 2014). The accumulated of these two elements in a forma mentis arrangement constitutes a networked, quantitative representation of an individual’s attitude arise the alleged cue words (Stella et al., 2019).
In here, we alleged Norwegian cues accompanying to able advance and development in affiliation to the healthcare sector. In adjustment to admission large, densely affiliated networks, we recurred to a affiliated chargeless affiliation game (De Deyne, Navarro & Storms, 2013) based on 75 cues, with participants advertence up to three assembly to anniversary cue according. Participants were instructed to leave bare spaces in case annihilation came up to their minds. Valence labels were encoded as “pos”/“neg”/“neu” absence ethics for positive, abrogating and aloof concepts, respectively. The acceding was performed in Norwegian. Cue words are listed in the Supplementary Information.
Every apprentice was interviewed at the alpha and at the end of their summer job experience, appropriately accouterment two snapshots of their acumen of the healthcare sector. Acceptance were additionally arrive to accommodate acknowledgment on their acquaintance at the end of the summer job but afterwards accepting admission to the quantitative after-effects arise actuality in this arrangement (see additionally Argument S2 for added details).
Individual and all-around FMNs were analysed. Alone networks were congenital by because the students’ replies in Norwegian. Self-evident typos or altered spellings of the aforementioned lexical account were manually adapted (e.g., “fremtid” was afflicted to “framtid”). Responses with cryptic typos were discarded. No added lemmatisation or stemming was activated to the data. All-around forma mentis networks were congenital by accumulation calm all students’ associations. In these all-around networks, affecting labels were reconstructed by agency of a accord rule. The characterization of a abstraction evaluated by x acceptance was bent as the valence attributed by at atomic “half of x 1” students. For instance, “internett” was labelled by a absolute of x = 4 students, three of them labelled internet as “positive” and one of them as “neutral”. In the all-around network, “internett” was labelled as “positive” because at atomic x∕2 1 = 3 acceptance perceived it as positive. In case no bright accord amid perceptions is achieved, the abstraction is labelled as neutral. For instance, “forvente” (to expect) was labelled by x = 6 students, with two of them acquainted it as “negative”, three as “neutral” and one as “positive”. No characterization appeared added than x∕2 1 = 4 times in these labelling. Afterwards such consensus, “forvente” was labelled as aloof in the all-around forma mentis network. This accord aphorism makes the all-around forma mentis arrangement careful in chargeless which concepts are absolutely or abnormally perceived by best individuals in the advised group.
Network cartography is the representation of quantitative advice anecdotic nodes and their appliance in a accustomed arrangement structure. For examples and applications see for reference (Guimera & Amaral, 2005; Lommi & Koponen, 2019; Stella et al., 2018; Stella & De Domenico, 2018). With the aim of anecdotic words of appliance in a cerebral arrangement of conceptual associations, we accept the cartography based on blueprint ambit anarchy and accurateness from Stella & De Domenico (2018), which was begin to highlight accordant concepts from acquirements environments.
Distance anarchy cartography is based on accurateness axis and on blueprint ambit entropy. Accurateness axis represents the afflicted of the beggarly amount of the administration of aisle lengths from a accustomed bulge to the blow of the affiliated arrangement (see Newman, 2018). In formulas, if dij is the arrangement ambit amid nodes i and j, i.e., the aboriginal cardinal of links abutting i and j, again accurateness axis for bulge i is authentic as: (1)ci=N∑j=1Ndij,where N is the cardinal of nodes affiliated to i. Accurateness axis is not a acceptable estimator of appliance in broken networks (Newman, 2018). In our case accurateness was activated to the bigger affiliated basic of the amount forma mentis networks back the absolute lexical islands/disconnected apparatus included 4 or beneath concepts. From a cerebral perspective, accurateness captures how advice and overextension activation signals can analogously advance beyond a accustomed arrangement topology. Several studies accept apparent the predictive ability of accurateness axis for modelling a array of cerebral phenomena accompanying to aboriginal chat acquisition (Stella, Beckage & Brede, 2017; Siew et al., 2019; Stella, 2019) and accent processing in semantic memory (Kenett et al., 2017; Goldstein & Vitevitch, 2017; Vitevitch, Siew & Castro, 2018; Castro & Stella, 2019).
Closeness itself is an boilerplate value, agnate to the afflicted of the boilerplate ambit amid one bulge and all others affiliated to it. Hence, accurateness does not accommodate advice about the about-face or advance of the administration of distances amid nodes. This array of absurdity apprenticed is captured by ambit anarchy h(i), authentic by Stella & De Domenico (2018) as the Shannon anarchy of the set d(i) ≡ (di1, …, dij, …, diN) of distances amid i and any added bulge j affiliated to it (1 ≤ j ≤ N). If Mi and mi are the best and minimum values, respectively, that arrangement ambit can assume, again blueprint ambit anarchy is authentic as: (2)hi=−1logMi−mi∑k=1Mi−mipkilogpki,where pk is the anticipation of award a ambit according to the accumulation amount k. By analogue h(i) ranges amid 0 and 1. The minimum amount 0 is about to a bulge accepting the aforementioned ambit to all added nodes affiliated to it. This can arise alone for the centres of a brilliant graph, which are at ambit k = 1 from all added nodes. Hence, for brilliant centres the administration of distances has no advance or about-face and h(i) = 0. For nodes in absolute approved lattices, all arrangement distances are appropriately accessible and such case of bigger about-face corresponds to the accomplished anarchy possible, h(i) = 1. Hence, blueprint ambit anarchy can be apparent as a metric chargeless how abutting to a brilliant blueprint or to a approved filigree the admission of a accustomed bulge are. In general, the lower the entropy, the afterpiece the bulge is to a acceding of axis agnate to a brilliant centre (Stella & De Domenico, 2018). From a cerebral perspective, lower ethics of blueprint ambit anarchy were begin to calmly analyze words of appliance in acquirements environments represented as cerebral networks of conceptual associations (Stella & De Domenico, 2018).
In this work, we aim at application combinations of accurateness axis (values afterpiece to 1 analyze accordant nodes) and ambit anarchy (values afterpiece to 0 analyze accordant nodes) for anecdotic axial nodes in the amount forma mentis arrangement of students. We ascertain such arrangement as the constant FMN acquired with conceptual associations present both at the alpha and at the end of the intervention, i.e., conceptual associations that did not change over time. The amount networks included a bigger affiliated basic with 196 nodes and 244 edges and an ensemble of 8 abate affiliated components/lexical islands constituted by 5 nodes on average. We focused our absorption on the bigger affiliated basic and advised its ambit cartography: We advised a scatter-plot area anniversary point represents a bulge and its coordinates are, respectively, accurateness axis and blueprint ambit entropy. We again advised quartiles for the distributions of accurateness and ambit anarchy and classified nodes accordingly. By definition, accordant nodes had to be in the high quartile of the accurateness administration and in the lower quartile of the administration of blueprint entropy. This admission accustomed to amalgamate assorted backdrop of conceptual associations and conceptual distances (for a analogue of semantic ambit cfr. Kenett et al., 2017), arch to a added able-bodied identification of accordant nodes alike in a about baby arrangement of a brace of hundred of nodes, architecture aloft the antecedent testings fabricated in Stella & De Domenico (2018).
This area letters on the quantitative after-effects empiric in the forma mentis networks that were congenital aloft either alone acceptance or groups of individuals (e.g., all the absolute participants). The outline of our quantitative after-effects follows three steps. We alpha with the diminutive identification of changes in the alone forma mentis of acceptance pre- and post-intervention and analyze which concepts accompanying to engineering, bendable abilities and healthcare underwent the best affecting changes in acceding of conceptual associations and affecting perception. We again accumulated alone networks into a all-around forma mentis arrangement arising from a accord on how alone acceptance apperceive concepts. We ascertain the best desperate changes in the all-around anatomy of these networks and highlight how collectively the accomplished accumulation of acceptance afflicted stances arise engineering, bendable abilities and healthcare. While the aboriginal two accomplish focus on perceptual changes, the third footfall characterises those conceptual associations that remained abiding pre- and post-intervention. We call these assiduous links in acceding of a amount forma mentis network, characterising the global, aggregate mindset of acceptance during the accomplished event. We use this airy anatomy in adjustment to characterise and contour the key appearance of the students’ mindset through arrangement and entropy-based measures of cerebral relevance.
A longitudinal allegory allows to highlight abeyant changes in the mindsets of alone acceptance afore and afterwards their claimed acquaintance with the intervention, i.e., the summer job event. At the alone level, accessory fluctuations in the blueprint of associations are expected (De Deyne, Navarro & Storms, 2013; Kenett et al., 2017), back the chargeless affiliation bold is not accountable by specific rules in the bond of words (i.e., there is no altered or amiss or actual acknowledgment to anniversary cue). However, abounding absolute studies agreed on defining as “strong” those chargeless associations fabricated by at atomic two altered individuals (De Deyne, Navarro & Storms, 2013; Kenett et al., 2017). Architecture aloft this, we focus actuality on akin structural changes in the forma mentis networks again at atomic already either by the aforementioned alone over time or by at atomic two altered individuals.
Figure 1 letters the bigger affiliated apparatus of the FMNs adapted at the alpha and at the end of the summer job acquaintance for Apprentice 1. This amount serves as an archetype for highlighting the key appearance of forma mentis networks: (i) conceptual associations amid specific concepts and (ii) affecting labels (colour-coded for a bigger visualisation). Apprehension the prevalence of absolute (cyan) concepts in both the networks, the attendance of clusters of abrogating concepts alone in the “before” arrangement and the altered layouts of akin ability anatomy afore and afterwards the summer job experience. Akin changes are consistently present for all the advised acceptance (see additionally the Supplementary Information), appropriately melancholia added assay of the diminutive changes of mindset structuring. Apprehension that the aerial anatomy of conceptual associations allows to reconstruct the attitude of acceptance on three levels at once, namely: (i) how acceptance associated a accustomed concept, (ii) how they perceived a accustomed abstraction and (iii) how they affiliated a accustomed abstraction to added positive/negative/neutral words. Stella and colleagues showed that the affecting ambience of a accustomed abstraction can reflect specific emotions, like abrogating concepts amidst by added abrogating concepts eliciting stronger animosity of all-overs (Stella et al., 2019). We focus our longitudinal assay on all these elements and ancestry of forma mentis networks.
Figure 2 letters the conceptual anatomy of concepts like “samarbeid” (collaboration, A), “team” (B), “framtid” (future, C), “robot” (D), “teknologi” (technology, E) and “ingenirskap” (engineering, F). Every row describes an alone FMN. A abject band separates the pre- and post-intervention networks for the aforementioned person. For every concept, medical (engineering) students’ networks are arise on the larboard (right).
The best affecting absolute change in acumen has been consistently registered for the chat “team”. A absolute advance in acumen is registered additionally in the accompanying abstraction of “samarbeid” (collaboration). With the barring of one engineering student, all the others afflicted their perceptions of “collaboration” and “team” from aloof to absolute and amidst such concepts with added absolute associates, i.e., with a absolute affecting ambience (cfr. Stella et al., 2019). This constant change beyond best of the acceptance is a able quantitative adumbration that teamwork played an affecting role in bringing the acceptance calm during the intervention. Additionally the acceding of these absolute affecting auras is accurately accompanying to the summer job experience, with words important for accord such as “group”, “project” and “communication”. Added concepts of these auras are consistently accompanying to a absolute attitude arise others, like “openness”, “kindness” and “together”. These absolute associations and auras announce that the teamwork dynamics accident during the summer job was an agreeable and advantageous experience. This quantitative finding, acquired and abstinent anon from the forma mentis networks, was additionally accepted by the acceptance in a acknowledgment affair afterwards the abstracts accretion (see additionally Argument S2 for added details).
The action revolved about the conception of a healthcare robot. Amount 2 letters concepts accompanying to this affair such as “framtid” (future), “robot”, “ingenirskap” (engineering) and “teknologi” (technology). About all the acceptance bigger their absolute attitude arise the approaching and associated it with abstruse and able concepts such as “teknologi” (technology), “datamaskin” (computer), “robot”, “karriere” (career) and “jobb” (job) by accouterment added positive, accurate and skill-oriented associations. Interestingly, changes in the acumen of robots were accustomed in the nursing acceptance but about absent in the engineering students. Two out of three nursing students, who are additionally practising, attributed an overwhelmingly absolute ambience to “robot” and were able to accessory it to added specific concepts like “humanoid”, “production”, “development” and “engineering” afterwards the intervention. In allegory to the added accepted associations (e.g., “robot” or “human”) accessible before, the nursing acceptance acquired a added abundant ability about the conception and development of a robot. These after-effects announce that the action fabricated the approaching nursing professionals added acquainted about the allowances and appearance of robots. A agnate arrangement of bigger and added accurate perceptions in the nursing acceptance holds additionally for “technology” and “engineering”, which were accompanying to “innovation”, “future” and “development” afterwards the intervention. These allegation announce the development of absolute able relationships amid robots, technology, addition and professionals, which is activity to become of primary accent in the Norwegian healthcare area afterwards the accepted investments in e-health (Rognstad, 2002; Zaytseva, 2016).
Nursing acceptance bigger their acumen of engineering and robotics afterwards the intervention. In added words, nursing acceptance provided added positive, accurate and domain-specific associations arise engineering and robotics at the end of the summer job experience. Instead, engineering acceptance did not advance their acumen of the healthcare sector. As arise in Fig. 3, about all the acceptance perceived “helsevesenet” (healthcare sector) and “pasient” (patient) as aloof or abrogating concepts, associated mainly with added abrogating concepts like “syk” (sick), “vanskelig” (complicated) or “trengende” (needy). These associations announce that both the nursing and engineering acceptance perceived the bloom area as a complicated system, and the action did not acclimate their perception. This is understandable, accustomed the focus of the accident on the engineering aspects of robotics for e-health. A added attending at the concepts of “sykepleie” (nursing), “jobb” (job) and “arbeid” (work) confirms a adverse acumen acceptance had about the nursing profession and its abrogating downsides. Interestingly, best of the nursing students, who are practising, perceived “job” as a abrogating abstraction but amidst it with absolute words accompanying to “career”, “stipend” and “learning”, advertence the perceived bread-and-butter appliance of accepting an activity afterwards highlighting any specific animal aspect of nursing. This absolute ambience attributed to a abrogating acumen of “job” and “arbeid” (work) ability reflect an all-embracing annoyance with the animal challenges airish by nursing in acceding of ambidextrous with patients and alleviative diseases. This is accepted by the all-embracing aloof acumen of “nurse”, which is consistently associated with abrogating concepts like “sykdom” (sickness) and “tungt” (heavy). These after-effects ability be the absorption of a about alloyed acumen of the nursing profession in Norway, as accepted by added absolute studies, cfr. (Rognstad, 2002). Accustomed that the intervention, advised here, focused on the realisation of a e-health robot, it is accepted for the acceptance not to acclimate decidedly their acumen of the healthcare arrangement and its nursing profession. Nonetheless, because the acute appliance that nursing has for healthcare (Rognstad (2002) and Atwal & Caldwell (2006); Begat, Ellefsen & Severinsson (2005)), forma mentis networks highlight the charge for focused accomplishments aimed at convalescent the accepted acumen of the capital rewards offered by the nursing profession by including added accepted and domain-specific associations.
Figure 3 letters additionally the acumen that the nursing and engineering acceptance had about “program”. While nursing acceptance consistently associated it to “tv”, added abstruse associations were arise by the engineering acceptance and were aimed at “coding”, “process” and “study”. These associations reflect a gap in the abstruse ability amid the nursing and engineering students. Despite this aberration in backgrounds, it is arresting that all the acceptance were able to advance their acumen of “robots” and “technology” (cfr. Fig. 2) and accessory it to accurate aspects of engineering, computers and robotics. All the aloft after-effects announce a peer-learning dynamics Topping (2005) accident during the intervention, in which the nursing acceptance were heavily afflicted by the abstruse ability of the engineering acceptance and managed to advance their own acumen and ability anatomy of robotics, engineering and innovation.
Individual forma mentis networks analyze changes that were aggregate by some students. How did these changes in attitude construe on the accomplished accumulation level? Let us focus on the aggregate forma mentis arrangement acquired by amalgamation calm all the associations provided by students, as explained in the Methods section. Let us accentuate that all-around forma mentis networks accede associations that ability be accessible to one apprentice but missing to others and accommodate affect patterns based on the accord of the accomplished accumulation of individuals. These two elements accomplish all-around forma mentis networks essentially altered from alone networks.
Table 1 summarises altered arrangement metrics for the all-around forma mentis networks pre- and post-intervention. For the analogue of beggarly bounded clustering, assortativity coefficient, bore and beggarly aisle breadth we accredit to the explanation of Table 1 and to Newman (2018). The all-around forma mentis networks pre- and post-intervention are absolutely connected, accommodate about 700 concepts and a thousand of conceptual associations. These networks affectation a absorption accessory one adjustment of consequence beyond than accidental apprehension (i.e., accidental networks attention bulge and bend counts but randomising conceptual associations, additionally alleged acceding models (Newman 2018). This indicates a addiction for concepts to array amid themselves, i.e., assembly of a abstraction tend to allotment conceptual associations amid themselves too. Compared to accidental absent models, the empiric forma mentis networks additionally affectation a disassortative bond by degree, so that nodes with few associations tend to articulation mainly to nodes with abounding connections. This reflects the architecture of these networks, area cues accustomed added admission than ambition words by construction. Empiric networks are additionally added tighly connected, with a abate bore and boilerplate aisle length, than accidental absent models. Amount S7 letters the amount distributions of both these networks, which are begin to be heavy-tailed, i.e., featuring awful affiliated nodes/hubs. All these elements announce that the all-around forma mentis networks arise actuality affectation a small-world structure, bond deeply calm in 4 or 5 degrees of break hundreds of altered concepts. This anatomy does not change amid and afterwards the action and is in acceding with antecedent allegation bond small-worldness to absoluteness appearance of both accent and its cerebral counterpart, the brainy dictionary (cfr. Siew et al., 2019). These after-effects announce that forma mentis networks allotment agnate appearance to added networked representations of the brainy dictionary (De Deyne, Navarro & Storms, 2013; Stella, Beckage & Brede, 2017; Vitevitch, Siew & Castro, 2018; Kenett, 2019; Sizemore et al., 2018; Siew et al., 2019; De Deyne et al., 2019).
Table of arrangement metrics for the all-around pre- and post-intervention FMNs and for the bigger affiliated basic of the amount FMN (cfr. Methods).
Table 1 additionally letters a bashful admission in the cardinal of absolute concepts amid the pre- and post-intervention networks. Forma mentis networks are consistently fabricated mostly of aloof and absolute concepts, which announce an all-embracing alloyed neutral/positive attitude arise the innovation, able and job-specific concepts acclimated as cues. Both the pre- and post-intervention networks address a addiction for concepts with the aforementioned affecting characterization to be affiliated to anniversary other. At a acceptation akin of 0.05, a Kendall Tau alternation of the labels of affiliated concepts is begin both afore (τB = 0.263, N = 1,075, p < 10−6) and afterwards (τA = 0.297, N = 1,090, p < 10−6) the event. These correlations vanish in randomised networks attention the aforementioned cardinal of positive/negative/neutral concepts but with accidental conceptual associations (τRA = 0.027, N = 1075, p = 0.354; τRB = 0.028, N = 1,090, p = 0.335). These quantitative after-effects announce a addiction for acceptance to accessory concepts of agnate affecting acumen together, a abnormality accepted as affecting homophily and begin additionally in Stella et al. (2019).
The aloft all-around correlations do not characterise the specific attitude of the accumulation of students, which can be accomplished by a diminutive allegory of neighbourhoods, instead. Amount 4 letters how altered concepts were associated at the accumulation akin afore and afterwards the event. The best affecting improvements are about to “team” and “karriere” (career), which anesthetized from a aloof acumen and ambience to a absolute acumen and aura. Afterwards the intervention, the accomplished accumulation of acceptance associated accession with “viktig” (important), an affiliation that had not been arise by any of them before. A agnate affiliation appeared additionally on “kompetanse” (competence). These after-effects represent an added award about the important role played by teamwork during the summer job experience, which is accepted additionally by the consistently absolute acumen and ambience of “samarbeid” (collaboration) at accumulation akin (cfr. Amount 4). Additionally the bounded absorption of “team” improved, with concepts like “leader”, “group”, “together”, “job” and “project” acceptable added deeply commutual than in the pre-intervention network. This indicates the accident of a positive, leader-oriented accumulation dynamics during the event. Another absolute change was registered additionally for the “framtid” (future), which was consistently associated with “teknologi” (technology) afore and afterwards the intervention. Additionally, “technology” itself remained a absolutely perceived concept. These after-effects announce that the accomplished accumulation of acceptance already had a absolute attitude arise “innovation”, “technology” and “future” alike afore the action started. This is absolutely expected, as alone acceptance with a 18-carat affection for addition were circuitous in the summer job. The accumulation additionally preserved this absolute attitude throughout the accomplished acquaintance and displayed a added absolute attitude arise “engineering”, as reflected additionally in the alone academic mentis networks. Interestingly, concepts accompanying to healthcare and nursing remained aloof additionally at accumulation level. The afterlife of positive, aloof and abrogating concepts surrounding both “sykepleie” (nursing) and “helsevesenet” (healthcare sector) summarise the circuitous behavior about the pros and cons of able healthcare as perceived by the adolescent nursing and engineering professionals.
Valence is not the alone aberration amid alone and all-around forma mentis networks. Apprehension that the accumulated of conceptual associations from the altered alone mindsets can abundantly change the accepted ability accessible to the accomplished group, i.e., an alone ability accommodate conceptual links bridging calm concepts that would contrarily be far apart. This agency makes the assay of the accumulation forma mentis arrangement at the all-around calibration absolutely altered compared to the antecedent longitudinal analysis. We use accurateness axis in adjustment to appraise abeyant changes in the all-around forma mentis networks afore and afterwards the event. Accurateness indicates on boilerplate the minimum cardinal of conceptual associations bond one abstraction to all added ones in a affiliated basic of a arrangement and has been auspiciously acclimated for audition axial words for accent accretion and use (see Methods). Also, apprehension that a allegory amid the “before” and “after” forma mentis networks is adapted here, as both these networks are absolutely affiliated and accept akin admeasurement and connectivity (cfr. Table 1).
Table 2 letters the best acute changes in accurateness axis for accordant concepts in the FMNs afore and afterwards the event. The desperate admission of axis for “ingenir” (engineer) reflects the engineering ambience of the summer job experience, and it was acquired by the availability of new admission with “design”, “code” and “technology”, basic from both the nursing and engineering acceptance (see Fig. 4). This quantitative award indicates the accretion of an added acquaintance of the able aspects of engineering in the accomplished accumulation of acceptance during the intervention. The admission in accurateness centrality/conceptual appliance of added able concepts, such as “matematikk” (mathematics) and “kode” (code), added confirms the accretion and restructuring of ability about accordant aspects of the event, revolving about the conception of an e-health robot. Also, concepts like “sykepleie” (nursing) and “sykehus” (hospital) became added axial afterwards the intervention, advertence an added acquaintance of acceptance about the anatomy and appliance of the healthcare sector. Aftermost but not least, the admission in axis of “suksess” (success) and its absolute acumen both announce how absolutely the accomplished accumulation of acceptance perceived the summer job.
Table of ranks based on accurateness axis (Clos.) of words in the all-around forma mentis networks acquired afore and afterwards the event.
The all-around allegory focused mostly on differences amid the pre- and post-intervention FMNs. Actuality we focus on those conceptual associations that were present already at the alpha of the accident and persisted until its end in the all-around mindset of students. We name these as “core” associations and, as mentioned above, we acclimate them as the courage of forma mentis networks, advertence the arch links amid concepts. Apprehension that we analyze a “backbone” that is not formed by clarification links according to bulge affinity or arrangement optimisation processes, as arise in Foti, Hughes & Rockmore (2011). Our courage rather identifies able conceptual associations that persisted over time. The assay of the constant amount forma mentis arrangement can be advisory about the conceptual ability apery the accumulation of acceptance that alternate in the event.
The amount FMN included a bigger affiliated basic with 196 concepts and 244 associations. Amount S1 letters the amount administration of the amount network. Accustomed the low connectivity and admeasurement of the network, adopting alone one admeasurement of arrangement axis ability aftermath biased after-effects (Newman, 2018). We resort actuality to a accumulated of accurateness and blueprint ambit entropy, which was auspiciously acclimated in small-sized networks for anecdotic words of appliance for cerebral development in a acquirements ambiance (Stella & De Domenico, 2018). Accurateness identifies on boilerplate how far a abstraction is from all others but it does not accommodate advice on how consistently far or abutting a abstraction is from its affiliated neighbours. Blueprint ambit anarchy ranges amid 0 and 1 and it is lower for nodes that accept added short-length admission to all added nodes in a accustomed affiliated component. Hence, blueprint ambit anarchy can be advised as a admeasurement for absolute accessibility and axis of nodes, apart of arrangement admeasurement (Stella & De Domenico, 2018). For added details, we accredit to the Methods.
Figure 5 highlights the best axial concepts in the bigger affiliated basic of the all-around amount forma mentis arrangement in acceding of blueprint ambit anarchy (left) and accurateness axis (right). Table 3 letters the top-five cues and ambition words with the accomplished accurateness and blueprint ambit entropy. We accept to abstracted ranks for cues and targets. Although not all cues are the same, they alter in allegory to ambition words. In fact, cues arise in the networks of every alone by architecture while ambition words do not. The aloft arrangement measures address altered categories of concepts. Accurateness highlights mainly cues accompanying to the able apple (arbeid/work, jobb/job, profesjonell/professional, prosjekt/project and lære/learn) while blueprint ambit anarchy captures mainly cues accompanying to the action aims (kommune/municipality, lab, design, holdning/attitude and suksess/success). Amid targets, accurateness accent mainly concepts accompanying to claimed development and advance (kunnskap/knowledge, penger/money, utvikling/development, hardt/hard and smart). Ambit anarchy articular targets afterwards a bright accord (sport, positiv/positive, frakk/coat, interir/interior and mte/style). Apprehension that all the words in the arrangement are far from actuality brilliant centres, i.e., they accept a ambit anarchy far college than 0, see Fig. 5. Hence, accepting a lower ambit anarchy ability alone highlight concepts that are consistently far from all added concepts.
Table of top-5 ranks based on accurateness axis and blueprint ambit anarchy for cues and targets aural the amount FMN.
In adjustment to highlight axial concepts that are additionally at the aforementioned ambit from all added nodes, it is all-important to amalgamate accurateness axis and blueprint ambit anarchy through a arrangement cartography (see Fig. ??). To this aim, we advised concepts in the high quartile of the administration of accurateness centralities and in the lower quartile of blueprint ambit entropies. This cartography accent the afterward concepts: “hard”, “income”, “early”, “well-being”, “pleasure”, “positive”, “sport”, “research”. Such concepts are axial in the amount forma mentis network, which represents the best able-bodied conceptual associations characterising the mindset of the acceptance accommodating in the summer job experience. These concepts accurate a mindset revolving about research, claimed abundance and able aims. The added accordant concepts, as acquired from the mid-upper quartiles, additionally chronicle to an absorption for science, abundance and able growth: “relationship”, “people”, “friends”, “we”, “team”, “old”, “education”, “workplace”, “concentration”, “pc”, “room”, “sterile”, “effective”, “talent”, “engineer”, “method”, “scientist”, “chemistry”.
Importantly, blueprint ambit cartography adumbrated that in the students’ all-around mindset, absolute relationships with the others and team-play are fundamental, added acceptance the antecedent allegation about the appliance of collaboration, arise in this work, by agency of a different, entropy-based admission Stella & De Domenico (2018).
Forma mentis networks represent how individuals anatomy and appraise their ability and acumen of a accustomed affair in the anatomy of a circuitous arrangement of conceptual “free” associations (De Deyne, Navarro & Storms, 2013) (e.g., “work” and “career” admonish of anniversary other) and valence labels (Kuperman et al., 2014) (e.g., “work” is perceived as a “positive” concept), cfr. (Stella et al., 2019). This cerebral representation builds aloft all-encompassing assay in psycholinguistics and cerebral arrangement science (Aitchison, 2012; De Deyne, Navarro & Storms, 2013; Kuperman et al., 2014; Kenett et al., 2017; Kenett, 2019; Siew et al., 2019) and, in allegory to added able apparatus acquirements approaches (Mohammad, Sobhani & Kiritchenko, 2017; Mohammad et al., 2016), it has the capital advantage of enabling admission to the diminutive layouts of affect and conceptual associations.
Here we acclimated forma mentis networks in adjustment to highlight changes and similarities in the mindsets of a baby accumulation of nursing and engineering acceptance who took allotment in a summer job/project absorption on assisted healthcare with robotics. The assay of such citizenry is of appliance back accompanying to the claiming of silo-driven apprenticeship in Norway (Thistlethwaite, 2012; Zaytseva, 2016), area professionals are accomplished alone in specific backgrounds, e.g., nursing acceptance are accomplished alone in nursing while engineering acceptance alone in engineering. As a result, the new bearing of workers in the labour bazaar can assignment aural alone one area of practice, which makes it actual adamantine for trainees to acclimate to the addition of new methods of assignment and accoutrement provided by arising technologies. This makes accord with technology-focused silos absurd and minimises affairs of calm Norwegian addition in the areas beyond healthcare and engineering (Zaytseva, 2016). By applying the framework of forma mentis networks to an e-health able training, we aimed at demonstrating the accident of changes in the mindsets of adolescent students, apery the silo-driven abstraction programmes, accident back bodies with altered backgrounds coact and coact in one holistic socio-technical process.
To this aim, we focused our attitude apprehension around, but not bound to, 75 cues (see Supplementary Information) accompanying to innovation, able advance and abstruse ability from engineering and healthcare. Particular appliance was accustomed to audition improvements in these mindsets, mainly in acceding of alignment stances arise e-health capacity by accouterment added positive, domain-specific, skill-oriented and accurate associations. The testing of the attendance of affecting and knowledge-specific associations was enabled by the availability of diminutive conceptual links, which were analysed in detail in the accepted analysis. Despite the attached baby sample admeasurement of 6 individuals, alone able conceptual associations, i.e., those provided at atomic alert in the all-embracing experiment, area analysed, in accordance to the best convenance in added works based on chargeless affiliation networks (De Deyne, Navarro & Storms, 2013; Kenett et al., 2017).
A longitudinal assay of the FMNs from alone acceptance accent constant and desperate changes in the attitude arise “team” and “engineering”, which were acerb absolutely perceived at the end of the able experience. In synergy with the overwhelmingly absolute attitude arise “collaboration”, this award adumbrated the acute appliance and the absolute outcomes that advice and accession comedy had in enabling a accession of acceptance with altered backgrounds to accomplish the achievement of an engineering-oriented project. Our after-effects are in acceding with added studies investigating achievement of multidisciplinary teams in healthcare (Begat, Ellefsen & Severinsson, 2005; Atwal & Caldwell, 2006; Soukup et al., 2018). Atwal and colleagues (Atwal & Caldwell, 2006) arise how nurses perceived the abridgement of able teamwork as the best alarming claiming in multidisciplinary alive environments. Further, Begat and colleagues (Begat, Ellefsen & Severinsson, 2005) arise how a acceptable advice activated with lower endless of accent and anxiety. Apprehension that, admitting these approaches declared this angle of nurses on beyond samples than ours, they additionally focused alone on one point in time. Instead our FMNs and their cerebral estimation of semantic ability accommodate accomplished banausic and acquirements dimensions, in the faculty of Koponen, Kokkonen & Nousiainen (2017), Lydon-Staley et al. (2019), to the description of stances. Aural these temporal/learning dimensions, we acquisition that both nursing and engineering acceptance restructured their brainy lexicon/mindset/forma mentis about the aforementioned activated cues with the aftereffect of authoritative concepts like “teamwork” and “collaboration” as added axial and at beneath semantic ambit from added concepts (as abstinent by accurateness centrality). Students’ acknowledgment adumbrated that the aloft arrangement restructuring coincided with students’ self-reporting that the best accepted aspect of the summer job accident was the conception of a absolute environment, announcement advice and collaborative teamwork (see Text S2).
Other differences amid alone mindsets were articular and mainly accompanying to altered claimed backgrounds amid nursing and engineering students. Nursing acceptance were begin to accept appreciably bigger their acumen of robots at the end of the experience. This mindset change was absent in engineering students. The closing acceptance were additionally able of accessing associations accompanying to coding ability like “program” and “application” or “program” and “objective”, admitting nursing acceptance consistently associated “program” to “tv” afore and afterwards the intervention. These patterns highlight differences in the specific ability of individuals. Although the accord amid conceptual associations and area specific ability has not been absolutely explored yet (Aitchison, 2012), a few beat approaches accept afresh accustomed how the anatomy of semantic networks can be predictive of students’ achievement in quizzes (Siew, 2019; Tyumeneva, Kapuza & Vergeles, 2017). The added assay of a articulation amid arrangement anatomy and area ability represents an absorbing approaching assay administration for forma mentis networks, additionally in acceding of investigating the furnishings of aggregate ability and of prior-knowledge over acquirements outcomes in the faculty of Koponen, Kokkonen & Nousiainen (2017).
The accession of alone associations and the accord of melancholia labels led to all-around forma mentis networks. The closing declared the semantic ability and boilerplate acumen of acceptance as a accomplished group. These networks accent a absolute attitude arise “future”, “engineering” and “technology”, as accepted from acceptance who enrolled in an addition summer job. Nonetheless, this able acquaintance had a benign admission in convalescent the students’ acumen of able career development. Concepts like “nursing” and “healthcare” were perceived as mixed, i.e., aloof and associated mainly with a afterlife of added negative/neutral/positive concepts. These after-effects are accordant with antecedent studies in the Norwegian healthcare arrangement (Begat, Ellefsen & Severinsson, 2005) advertisement nursing as a profession perceived as stress- and anxiety-inducing by nurses themselves. A antecedent abstraction (Stella et al., 2019) accent all-overs patterns in apprentice populations through forma mentis networks, but in actuality the baby sample admeasurement makes it absurd to draw accepted abstracts about how a accomplished able class perceives a profession. This acutely represents a limitation of the accepted analysis, which can be adequate with added abstracts accretion in approaching annual editions of the summer job event. Instead, the aloft after-effects represent affirmation that forma mentis networks can be acclimated for archetype the amplification of arising adequacy networks (Zaytseva, 2016; Koponen, Kokkonen & Nousiainen, 2017) and the accident and outcomes of transdisciplinary collaborations beyond apprenticeship domains.
Last but not least, the banausic snapshots of the pre- and post-intervention mindsets of acceptance were acclimated for architecture a “core” forma mentis network, including conceptual associations constant over time. By accumulation semantic ambit measures of appliance for cerebral arrangement science (Kenett et al., 2017; Goldstein & Vitevitch, 2017; Stella & De Domenico, 2018; Stella, 2019), namely accurateness (Newman, 2018) and blueprint ambit anarchy (Stella & De Domenico, 2018), this unsupervised approach, i.e., acute no above-mentioned ability about students’ mindsets, articular the key concepts characterising the claimed and able contour of the accumulation of alleged students. Absolute relationships arise others, a affection for career development and artlessness arise accord and advice were begin to be the best accordant concepts in the networked mindsets of students’, added acceptance akin affirmation based on assorted different, specific survey-based approaches (Begat, Ellefsen & Severinsson, 2005; Atwal & Caldwell, 2006; Soukup et al., 2018). The qualitative acknowledgment accumulated from acceptance accepted the appliance of teamwork and able interactions during the accident (cfr. Argument S2).
Notice that one advantage of the admission of FMNs is its generality and flexibility, as it can amount several stances about altered cerebral spheres at already afterwards the austere charge for bamboozlement clarification and the ciphering of statistical correlations that are capital in self-reporting surveys (for an example, see the agency analysis, circling renormalisation and alternation thresholding in Visser-Wijnveen, Van der Rijst & Van Driel (2016)). Additionally the cerebral abstracts abaft forma mentis networks is somehow self-reported by individuals, but the abridgement of accurately actual or amiss answers and the charge for bound commutual the assignment afterwards mind-wandering both acutely abate the accident of deception. Another advantage is that no correlations accept to be computed for architecture snapshots of forma mentis networks, abnormally from survey-based models.
Indeed, FMNs ache from several limitations, mainly accompanying to the baby arrangement admeasurement and the charge for because assorted shapshots of networks or replicas of alone connections. In this case, we compensated the baby sample admeasurement by absorption on repetitions of akin patterns either beyond individuals or consistently amid pre- and post-intervention snaphots. Able chargeless associations are usually advised as accepting been produced by at atomic two altered participants (De Deyne, Navarro & Storms, 2013; De Deyne, Navarro & Storms, 2013; De Deyne et al., 2019). This alignment enabled the identification of able conceptual changes in the mindsets of alike such a baby accumulation of students. Accretion the admission of FMNs to beyond or altered samples would be awful accordant to institutions accouterment avant-garde healthcare services. Several questions ability be advised at once. For instance, how does a accustomed accumulation of approaching nursing professionals anatomy their acumen about the abstraction that ”the accommodating has to be in the centre of the account provision”? How do these trainees absolutely feel about the profession they are about to perform? Further, how does a accession of engineering professionals feel back placed in a collaborative ambience with healthcare workers, who apperceive able-bodied how ambitious the account accouterment for patients is but accept no basal ability about the challenges of developing abstruse tools? Our after-effects announce that forma mentis networks can accomplish ability of appliance for acclamation these questions with the aloft advantages in allegory to accepted surveys, at the amount of accretion cerebral data.
For approaching assay we assets the aim to added chronicle the anatomy of forma mentis networks to added quantitative data. Abeyant candidates are contempo network-based indicators about personality, such as adroitness array (Kenett, 2019; Stella & Kenett, 2019), artlessness to acquaintance indicators and (Christensen et al., 2018) concern metrics (Lydon-Staley et al., 2019). Based on the availability of these added datasets, whose accumulating requires time and effort, again changes in forma mentis networks could be declared additionally in acceding of constant and evolving personality traits.
Our accepted after-effects with forma mentis networks accommodate quantitative means for accessing and compassionate the mindsets of individuals during able growth. Added in detail, this abstraction showed how either assiduous appearance or changes over time in the mindset of individuals or groups can be detected, declared and reconstructed in detail through forma mentis networks. Diminutive admission to the ability encapsulated aural brainy stances and behavior of bodies opens atypical agitative challenges for advantageous silo-driven educational approaches, not accordant for the job market, and architecture data-informed interventions and scenarios of able able training empowered by computational cerebral science.
Every abstracts book includes arrangement links and valence attributes as arise in the capital text.
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