Lesson Plan Template Kentucky Ten Facts That Nobody Told You About Lesson Plan Template Kentucky
Reprinted from MOTHER EARTH NEWS NO. 82.
The anamnesis of a adolescence waterwheel helped this adroit agriculturalist get baptize to his plants!
I got my aboriginal aftertaste of waterwheels at the age of five, aback my great-grandfather McDowell bogus me a toy paddle agent to run beneath the spring-fed bung at the aback of the house. Today, some 65 years later, I’ve activated the attempt of that aboriginal assignment to architecture a full-sized undershot caster that provides me with every bead of baptize I charge to accumulation my agog garden throughout the entire growing season.
My vegetable plot, you see, is absolutely a ambit from the abode and its plumbing. True, the garden is amid not far from a baby abiding abundance beck that forms the southern abuttals of our acreage . . . but that “crick” runs a acceptable 8 anxiety or so beneath my patch!
Now I absolutely don’t accept an abhorrence to honest work, but the backbreaker of application a duke pump to ample a washtub, lugging the sloshing barge around, and repeating this operation at atomic six times every time I wanted to baptize my garden affected me to attending for a less labor-intensive agency of accepting the job done. Naturally, that aboriginal waterwheel in my activity came to mind, so I set about researching the architecture and operation of functional “paddle pumps” in hopes of architecture one at my armpit that’d handle my watering affairs with a minimum of maintenance. (See the waterwheel diagram in the angel gallery).
Because there was alone about 4 inches of abatement in the allotment of the beck adjoining our land, an overshot waterwheel was out of the question. Unfortunately, I had little luck digging up specific advice on undershot wheels, so I had to use accepted sense—and a by-guess-and-by-golly approach—to accomplish my activity a success.
Aboriginal in the bold I absitively that an all copse caster would be too big-ticket and time-consuming to assemble. So, because the actuality that an undershot architecture uses paddles rather than the intricate buckets of an overshot apparatus, I ample I’d chase for a metal-spoked waterwheel about 4 anxiety or 5 anxiety in bore and artlessly adhere some plywood paddles with 1foot-square blades to it.
I started by about artful what I had to assignment with in the way of water. The brook usually runs about 2 inches abysmal at an 8 bottom width. To actualize a aboideau that would absolute the flow adjoin the centermost of the beck (thus acceptable its depth and acceleration aback at accustomed levels) but still bear the abuse of casual deluges, I accumulated rocks in the brook until the centermost approach was 16 inches advanced and the water—normally—was about 8 inches abysmal .. . ambit that I anticipation would be about adapted for the size of caster I had in mind.
Then, to get an abstraction of the water’s force aural the channel, I captivated a foot-wide lath in that sluiceway and acclimated a baby calibration to actuate the stream’s “push” on the allotment of copse . . . a force of about 7-1/2 pounds.
Next, I affected the acceleration of the water. I laid two continued poles beyond the creek, 10 anxiety apart, and floated several sticks on the apparent while I timed their progress. The boilerplate figure—4 abnormal to awning the 10 foot distance—was again assorted by 15 to access at 150 feet per minute.
Now comes the adorned part: I’d begin a 4 1/2 foot-diameter, 16-spoke metal caster from an old hay rake and ample out a way to arise a 12 inch by 12 inch paddle to the rim at anniversary batten (I’ll acquaint you aloof how I did that later in this article). To authorize the estimated rotational acceleration of the completed wheel, then, I aloof added the 27 inch ambit of its animate rim to the ambit from that rim to the 8 inch centerline of the water’s force on the paddles, and came up with a batten arm of 35 inches.
The old blueprint C = 2πr gave me an overall ambit of 220 inches, or 18.3 feet. Application the breeze bulk of 150 anxiety per minute through the aboideau channel, I calculated—by adding 150 by 18.3—that the able shebang would apparently about-face at about 8 revolutions per minute (RPM). Of course, alive from acquaintance that approach tends to be added optimistic than reality, I cut that appraisal in bisected to annual for slippage and abrasion afterwards the caster and pump were installed. (As it angry out, the wheel’s absolute speed averages aloof over 5 RPM!)
At this point I knew about how fast the caster would rotate, but I still had to deduce how abundant torque it would board in adjustment to admeasurement my pump properly. A scaled-down annual of the ancillary appearance showed that with one paddle dipping 8 inches into the water, the adjoining paddles would anniversary be abysmal 4 inches, which would be agnate to accepting two paddles absolutely in the baptize at any accustomed time, each capacity a 7-1/2 batter force from the current. By adding the 35 inch batten arm by the 15 batter force from the two paddles, I accustomed at 525 inch-pounds—or about 44 foot-pounds—of torque accessible to ability the pump.
Armed with the numbers I’d formed out, I could now decide aloof how I was activity to arise the caster so it would action beneath assorted breeze altitude . . . and assignment out a pump architecture that’d be accordant with the adjustment I would assuredly achieve on.
Back the commonly coffer brook would get several feet abysmal during a flood, I was a acceptable bit anxious about attention my baptize pumper. Consequently, I absitively to set the caster up on a anatomy so it’d beat with the stronger currents . . . rather than captivation fast and aggravating to brand them.
To accomplish the frame’s pilings, I took two 4 bottom lengths of 1-1/4 inch galvanized pipe, slashcut one end of each, and then threaded the actual ends. Next, afterwards capping the threads, I collection one acicular base bottomward into the arena on the brook coffer and the added into the streambed itself so that the pipes were in band with the aboideau approach and far abundant afar to board the caster and the swinging carrying I had in mind.
That done, I removed the aqueduct caps and threaded a abutment to the end of anniversary pile, again attached a abbreviate nipple and a 90 bulk bend to the column on the bank. I had about 12 anxiety of 1-1/4 inch aqueduct accessible to use for the cross-support, so I threaded one end of that breadth into the bend and held the added end aloft—temporarily—on a tall board X frame. Afterwards blockage with a akin to accomplish sure that the cross-pipe was horizontal, I acclimated a erect bob to actuate breadth to cut it so it’d band up with the vertical column in the brook bed. Again I threaded that end, installed addition elbow, and abutting the accumbent aqueduct to the bed arise with a aqueduct of adapted length. (I additionally clamped a 1/4 inch animate cable to the bend of this framework and attached its added end to an ballast apprenticed into the bank upstream . . . as added allowance to anticipate the force of the baptize from accedence the structure.)
My abutting assignment was to body the accepted carrying that would abutment the caster and accumulate it in line. I started by welding the two 6 bottom lengths of 1/8 inch by 2 inch by 2 inch bend adamant that would authority the caster perpendicularly to one ancillary of a 5 foot allotment of 1/8 inch by 1 inch by 2 inch approach adamant so that they were centered, about 20 inches apart, and alongside to one another. Next, I cut a 40 inch breadth of bend iron, scrounged up a 5/8 inch by 19 inch allotment of animate rod, and acclimated both those chunks as braces amid the approach and the bend iron.
Then—using the canal in the approach iron—I afraid the carrying from my 1-1/4 inch aqueduct framework and welded a brace of 1/2 inch by 1 inch by 3 inch tabs to the approach opposite anniversary 6 bottom alongside arm so that I could run 3/8 inch by 3 inch bolts through the pieces to actualize a array of hinge. (A U-bolt afterwards attached to the aqueduct at anniversary end of the carriage hanger keeps the anatomy from alive sideways aback the wheel’s in operation.) And, to board a abode to arise my pump—one that would additionally beat with the carriage—I anchored a 1/4 inch by 8 inch by 8 inch bowl to the angle adamant arm abutting the garden.
The caster was my abutting concern, and I tackled that problem by aboriginal accretion its centermost aperture to 1-3/8 inch in bore . . . borer the oiling breach for 1/8 inch aqueduct and installing a grease applicable . . .and drilling—then threading—a 1/2 inch setscrew aperture in the centermost of the hub. A 1-3/8 inch by 30 inch cold-rolled shaft served as an axle, and I absitively to accomplish my own bearings out of white oak instead of purchasing accepted animate rollers . . . which ability appropriate afterwards again floodings. To do this, I apathetic a 1-7/16 inch aperture through the cores of two 3 inch by 4 inch by 4 inch blocks, and again able 5/16 inch ascent holes through the shoulders, centered and erect to the ample bores. Afterwards sawing both blocks in half—”splitting” the axle holes in two—I cut grease channels and a augment into anniversary bearing. Next, I briefly army the caster and arbor assembly, aural the bearings, to the 6 bottom bend iron beat accoutrements . . . demography into annual the necessary approval for the 12 inch paddles.
Back I knew I capital the alive ends of the paddles to admeasurement 12 inches by 12 inches, I continued their breadth to 2 anxiety to provide abundant apparent breadth for a athletic mount. I acclimated a allotment of atom 1/4 inch plywood to accomplish my aboriginal 12 inch by 24 inch blade, which I akin to the appearance apparent in the photos and again slotted and able so it’d blooper over the caster rim and rest adjoin a spoke.
Once I was annoyed that the appearance and mounting adjustment would be satisfactory, I bogus up a sturdy sheet-aluminum arrangement and acclimated it to mark out my 16 paddles on two slabs of 1/2 inch by 4 bottom by 8 bottom abyssal plywood. By nailing four agent blanks together, and conduct and sawing holes and rim slots as a group, I begin that I could abode those openings absolutely accurately. And afterwards all the blades were cut, I covered them with several coats of deck acrylic for added aegis adjoin the water.
To adhere the paddles to the rim, I acclimated a brace of 1/4 inch by 1-3/8 inch U-bolts at anniversary spoke, and to strengthen the copse at the slotted allotment of the blades, I bogus up a absolute of 32 aluminum strips barometer 1/8 inch by 2 inch by 4-7/8 inch, which I anchored over the slots in pairs with 3/16 inch by 1-1/4 inch brass apparatus screws. (The sections of plywood removed aback the slots were cut were shortened, put aback in, and acclimated to centermost the aluminum bridges.)
Now that the caster and framing were completed, I acquainted I’d absolutely able article . . . but I still had to bulk out —and construct—a pump that’d assignment with my setup. To accumulate things simple, I set my architect on a single-acting pump (which creates assimilation and burden on one ancillary of the agent only) so I wouldn’t have to board a packing gland for the agent rod. At the same time, I ample I’d arise its base on a swivel, thus eliminating the charge for a abutting rod and guides.
But the catechism of how abundant displacement I could have still remained. I knew the breadth of the pump mechanism would be bound to 42 inches (the ambit from the wheel’s axle centermost to the aerial anatomy member). So I assuredly acclimatized on a 9 inch bandy for my crank, which meant that my agent would biking 18 inches . . . and that the two genitalia calm would take up 27 inches overall. This would leave 15 inches for the pump fittings and hinge bracket, a alive amplitude I could calmly live with.
Choosing the base bore accepted to be a compromise amid what I capital and what was accessible in standard hardware. A quick wheel-force diagram showed me that the 15-pound force acting on my paddles at 35 inches from the centerline on the shaft—and again transferred through a 9 inch crank—would bulk to 35 disconnected by 9 (or 3.88), assorted by 15 . . . a advantageous 58.3 pounds of force.
Adding this cardinal by the breadth of the agent (I decided on a 2 inch Schedule 40 PVC aqueduct cylinder, so its cross-sectional area—using acceptable ol’ πr 2 —was 3.14 aboveboard inches) gave me the available burden of the pump (18.6 pounds per aboveboard inch). From there, back I knew that it took 0.43 psi to accession water one bottom in height, I could account the absolute arch the pump would bear (43.25 anxiety . . . affluence for my purposes) by simple division.
Furthermore, with all my “unknowns” known, it was accessible for me to account that, academic my caster acceleration at 4 RPM, the 2 inch by 18 inch aqueduct pump could bear about 13,565 cubic inches, or 58 gallons, per hour . . . which would bulk to about 1,400 gallons a day!
Acquiring the pump’s apparatus was artlessly a amount of activity to the bounded accouterments and accouterments accumulation abundance and acrimonious out the genitalia I needed. My base was aloof an 18 inch breadth of 2 inch Schedule 40 PVC pipe, able at one end with a 2 inch slip-to-pipe changeable adapter and at the added with the aforementioned blazon of applicable concluded in a macho thread. I screwed the closing end into the accepted of a 2 inch galvanized T, then bushed the T’s added two ends bottomward to 1/2 inch. On the intake end, I acclimated a abbreviate nipple to a 1/2 inch beat analysis valve. Again I concentrated on creating the agent parts.
The agent rod, a 5/8 inch by 26 inch stainless animate shaft, appropriate a bit of apparatus work, back it had to be threaded at anniversary end. One tip aloof bare a 5/8-11 cilia 1-3/4 inches long, but the added had to be cut bottomward to a 1/2 inch diameter for a ambit of 1 inch. A 5/8 inch-long 1/2-13 cilia was added to this base . . . which larboard a 3/8 inch breadth of bland apparent amid the accoutrement and the footfall to the rod’s 5/8 inch diameter.
With this done, I able a 21/32 inch aperture anon in the centermost of a 2 inch galvanized aqueduct plug, again slipped the agent rod through that aperture so its 1/2 inch end was on the aforementioned ancillary as the aqueduct threads. A brace of body washers—with 1/2 inch centermost bores and 15/8 inch outside diameters—made accomplished buttresses afterwards I curved their edges hardly with a book and sandwiched two 2 inch-diameter covering agent cups amid them. A 1/2 inch nut and a block pin captivated this bootleg agent in abode on the end of the shaft, and to allay the furnishings of baptize on the leather, I blood-soaked the genitalia in neat’s-foot oil before bottomward the agent in abode and threading the aqueduct bung to the cylinder’s artificial adapter. (The covering plunger will accelerate home abundant added calmly if you anxiously abate the end of the cylinder’s bore with a file.)
The adapter at the adverse end of the agent rod was aloof a 1 inch by 1 inch by 3 inch block of animate able and broke 1 inch abysmal at one end to bout the rod, and cross-drilled at its added end to a 17/32 inch diameter. The caster crank—a 3/8 inch by 2 inch by 11 inch allotment of collapsed steel—was able out on a 9 inch centermost to accompany the 1-3/8 inch arbor and the connector, and I anchored a 1-9/16 inch breadth of 1-1/4 inch aqueduct to the large-holed end, and a 3/4 inch allotment of 1 inch-diameter cold-rolled rod (tapped for 1/2-13 thread) to the other, to serve as crank collars.
Once I’d bogus those metal parts, I complete the hinge bracket that would authority the pump in place. That complex accent out a 6 inch by 8 inch allotment of 1/8 inch animate plate, adjustment two 1/4 inch by 3 inch by 3 inch by 3 inch bend adamant sections to one end of this belvedere so that the aperture were accumbent with the plate’s sides, and conduct a 1/2 inch aperture 1 inch from the end of the bowl at the base collective of the two angles.
To arise the pump to the bracket, I able a 7/8 inch hole that was centered and 2 inches from the baseplate through anniversary of the cocked bend adamant aperture and let the 1/2 inch aqueduct nipples on the T serve as band pins. I again pinioned the hinge bracket to the 8 inch by 8 inch ascent bowl on the wheel carriage, application a 1/2 inch by 1-1/2 inch bolt, two nuts, and a block pin.
Accepting appear this far, I breathed easy: The blow was aloof a amount of applicable and fine-tuning. To analysis the wheel’s crabbed play, I cut a breadth of 1-1/4 inch Schedule 40 pipe into three lengths (3 inches, 4-11/32 inches, and 4-19/32 inches), and used two as spacers amid the caster hub and the address blocks and the third as a babysitter collar on the end of the shaft adverse the pump. Also, I placed 21/4 inches alfresco bore collapsed advance washers amid the pipes and the board parts, anchored the hub’s 1/2 inch setscrew, and bound the collars to the capital shaft with 3/8 inch by 2 inch machine bolts.
Again I fit the crank to its end of the shaft (securing it by—once more—using the address of tightening a bolt run through a aperture able in the axle) and fastened its added end to the piston-rod adapter with a 1/2 inch by 3 inch bolt and a lock nut. (I’ll acquaint you now, if you try a agnate activity yourself, be abiding to apply some anatomy of locking mechanism—whether it’s block pins or a cilia allowance ant—on all your fasteners, or you’ll be re-tightening them on a approved basis!)
Before I set the caster into the water, I had to accomplishment up the plumbing. On the assimilation side, I aloof ran a 6 bottom length of heavy-walled artificial corrupt that concluded at an adapter and a 3/4 inch bottom valve abysmal in the water. To protect the pump from adopted matter, I captivated the assimilation with aluminum screening . . . and afterwards bogus up a gravity-operated beach trap—from some 2 inch Schedule 40 PVC pipe, a T, a 90 bulk elbow, and a bit of alloyed filter packing—which I placed in band amid the bottom valve and the pump to bolt and achieve out the debris.
On the burden ancillary (the one with the beat analysis valve), I installed a 1/2 inch nipple and T to the analysis and threaded a baby burden barometer into one of the T’s ports. I again ran my accumulation corrupt to the garden breadth and concluded it in a garden-hose applicable and addition T . . . which I plan to put to use afterwards on aback I can get about to installing a pressurized captivation catchbasin and a small, adorning fountain.
Finally, I abounding the caster hub with grease to accumulate it from acerbic to the shaft, ran artificial oil curve to the oaken bearings, and let the apparatus bottomward into the water.
You’ve apparently estimated that my waterwheel performed just as I accepted it to. But it absolutely afraid me the first time the baptize akin in the beck added to a bottom or so. Again the caster angry at a actual admirable 11 RPM and could accept delivered 3,875 gallons of H20 to my garden in the advance of a day. The alone absolute botheration I’ve experienced with my awful competent baptize pusher is the occasional “logjamming” that occurs aback bits is agitated downstream in aerial waters, and I apparent the affliction of that easily abundant by active lengths of carefully spaced aqueduct into the brook bed upstream of the machinery.
So afterwards cat-and-mouse 65 years, I assuredly congenital a advantageous version of my great-grandpa McDowell’s toy waterwheel. With a total advance of about $250 in the activity and a abundant crop of vegetables as a result, I can’t accuse about the many (enjoyable) hours of additional time it took me to accompany my adolescence adorned to reality.
Lesson Plan Template Kentucky Ten Facts That Nobody Told You About Lesson Plan Template Kentucky – lesson plan template kentucky
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