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Regardless of the echelon, there are bristles achieve or phases to the accumulating management process. At the activity army and army levels, the S2 area performs the accumulating mangement function. The bristles phases are:

This affiliate primarily deals with the aboriginal appearance (receive and assay requirements) of the accumulating administration process. IPB is advantageous to advance these requirements. FM 34-2, Collection Administration and Synchronization Planning, covers the absolute accumulating administration activity in detail.

The primary purpose of accumulating administration is to acknowledgment the commander’s IRs while authoritative the best use of deficient intelligence accumulating resources. The secondary purpose is to acknowledgment IRs of added intelligence users. The commander’s IRs provide the advice all-important to assassinate the called advance of activity and carry out his targeting strategy. IPB helps the administrator assay his IRs and provides the focus and administration bare to amuse them.


The administrator bases his antecedent IRs on the analytical gaps in the command’s knowledge of blackmail forces, the battlefield environment, and its furnishings on potential COAs. Based on the commander’s guidance, some gaps become the S2’s initial priorities for intelligence collection. Mission assay additionally produces a set of blackmail COA models. The acceptation differences amid these COAs are the base of the antecedent accident arrangement and its acknowledging matrix. The S2 uses this antecedent accident arrangement and cast to focus his accumulating efforts to identify the COA the blackmail will adopt.


During COA development, the S2 needs to activate the assignment of free the collection assets that are accessible to him.


During the staff’s “fight” of the adversary and affable COAs, the agents identifies areas (named areas of absorption (NAIs)) area intelligence confirms adversary activities or added key events. This allows the S2 to affairs accumulating assets against a accurate NAI at a specific time. During wargaming, the administrator may discover that he needs to achieve a accommodation based on the intelligence from a NAI. That NAI becomes a accommodation point (DP) or creates a DP accompanying to that NAI. The advice appropriate to achieve that accommodation becomes an intelligence requirement and is added to the account of proposed IRs for that accurate COA. The targeting activity uses abounding accommodation credibility developed during wargaming. Because of wargaming, the S2 has articular all IRs bare to abutment his accumulating strategy. He develops and depicts these strategies for abeyant affable COAs application an intelligence synchronization cast and a accumulating plan.


Following the staffs’ recommendations, the administrator decides aloft a COA that fits the needs of the unit. He additionally approves the account of IRs associated with that COA developed afore and during wargaming. He again identifies the best important as antecedence intelligence requirements (PIRs).


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As the assemblage executes the called COA, the S2 executes the accumulating plan. The S2 focuses accumulating assets on the able intelligence claim at each date of the operation. He receives the advice it produces, processes it, and again produces and disseminates intelligence of bulk to the commander in time to abutment the mission. During execution, the S2 monitors both current operations and the intelligence situation. He maintains acquaintance with his asset managers to ensure able cross-cuing and retasking of accumulating assets. This allows the S2 to booty advantage of presented opportunities, abstain surprise, and accumulate intelligence synchronized with the command’s operation.


Intelligence synchronization is the activity that ensures the intelligence arrangement provides answers to IRs in time to access the accommodation they support. The S2 develops specific orders (from college commands) and requests (from accessory and adjacent commands) (SOR) sets that accord the activities of the intelligence collectors with specific advice requirements. He ensures that:

The S2 (collection manager) is the key to intelligence synchronization. He checks to ensure that all decisions articular during COA development are supported one for one by intelligence requirements. He again manages the accumulating management activity to ensure that:

Successful synchronization provides analytical intelligence in a appropriate abode that influences battlefield decisions. Abortion to accord intelligence after-effects in:


Experience at the action training centers has accurate the accent of R&S planning. Gaining and advancement acquaintance with the adversary is capital in acceptable the battle. With a acceptable account of the enemy, the administrator can barometer the intentions of the enemy, advanced the enemy’s actions, and accumulation his action adeptness to defeat him. IPB plays a aloft role in R&S planning.

The two attempt of R&S are to acquaint the commanders what they charge to apperceive in time for them to act and do as abundant as accessible advanced of time. The R&S plan should anon abode what the administrator wants to know. It is command-oriented and command-directed. The administrator focuses his R&S accomplishment with his PIRs. PIRs awning the analytical advice gaps that the administrator needs to accomplish his mission. The IPB activity provides the best adjustment to assay the battlefield environment. With IPB arena such a analytical allotment in R&S planning, it is easy to accept the added assumption of R&S, do as abundant as accessible advanced of time. As discussed beforehand in this publication, the IPB activity is actual time arresting and abundant of this activity can be done at home station.

The IPB activity provides the framework for the R&S effort. Of all IPB products, the accident arrangement is the best important artefact for R&S planning. The event arrangement allows the S2 to affirm or abjure the bearings templates, barometer enemy and affable ante of movement, assay ante of movement amid mobility corridors and avenues of approach, and cue added accumulating assets based on affable and adversary movement. The associated accident assay cast is additionally used to assay specific events. The S2 uses this to accretion out back and area events will booty abode on the battlefield. The DST developed during the wargaming activity is additionally important to R&S planning. The R&S plan charge abutment the DST.

OBSERVATION: S2s are declining to tie the IPB activity into the R&S planning process.

DISCUSSION: TF commanders and S3s “delegate” the albatross for planning, integrating and authoritative the assay accomplishment to the S2. Best S2s advance R&S plans afterwards amalgam added agents elements afore the agents issues the OPORD. The affairs that R&S assets will be abominably active access dramatically back the S2 fails to accommodate the accumulating plan with the S3’s activity COAs afore the commander’s accommodation brief. The aftereffect is a bootless reconnaissance accomplishment that partially covers NAIs, which hampers the staff’s adeptness to determine blackmail weakness or backbone and again accomplishment blackmail weakness.

LESSON(S): FM 34-2-1, Reconnaissance and Surveillance and Intelligence Abutment to Counter-Reconnaissance, is the doctrinal advertence for R&S planning. TF commanders, XOs, and S3s should drive the R&S plan development with the S2. The agents should advance the R&S plan agnate to an OPORD. In this way, the agents integrates and synchronizes the plan. Aboriginal in the agents planning process, assay PIRs, advance SIRs, and again account indicators for anniversary NAI. The R&S plan should not alone answer the Specific Advice Requirements (SIRs) but should additionally abutment the commander’s plan of maneuver. The R&S plan should be in both accounting and bright anatomy to assignment assets in the OPORD. Ensure that accessory commanders are captivated accountable for their NAIs. This allows the S2 time to assay assay after-effects and alter accumulating assets as necessary.


The S2 is amenable for active the R&S effort. The aboriginal footfall deals with receiving the unit’s mission. As the S2 analyzes the mission, he identifies intelligence gaps that he charge acknowledgment for the administrator to achieve that mission. The analytical intelligence gaps become the commander’s PIR. These PIR, forth with added IRs accommodate the focus for R&S planning. The R&S plan should acknowledgment these requirements. The S2 has to construe the antecedent PIR and IR into indicators on which R&S assets can collect. The S2 again identifies the specific information requirements (SIR) and specific orders and requests (SOR) for the R&S plan. The SIR and SOR ensure that assets are accession specific advice that answers the PIR and IR. The S2 again compares the SIR to the accident template. This tells the S2 area and back to position affable accumulating assets. The S2 positions accumulating assets on these areas and they become called areas of absorption (NAIs). The S2 again prioritizes the SIR. He should apply his accumulating accomplishment on the SIR that accommodate the greatest bulk of intelligence in the beeline bulk of time. The abutting footfall is to assay the collectors that are accessible and can aggregate the information. The final footfall is to task the beneficiary to conduct the mission. The S2, with the S3, should assignment assets to ensure that the assets are accessible and that the absolute R&S accomplishment supports the assemblage mission.

OBSERVATION: The agents generally fails to abutment their R&S assets with capital advice and affairs all-important to achieve during training and action operations.

DISCUSSION: The abortion to abutment a unit’s R&S assets can decidedly abase a unit’s ability to auspiciously achieve its assigned mission. There are abundant reasons why this may occur. However, two factors are generally empiric at the action training centers. The aboriginal is backward and clumsily planned R&S operations by the staff. The added is the backward deployment of accumulating assets.

The capital botheration appears to be the disability of the agents to plan and coordinate a appropriate R&S accomplishment while activity through the appropriate decisionmaking process. Commanders and S3s admit the charge to get accumulating assets out early, but abort to ensure appropriate and complete instructions are accustomed to them to facilitate employment. During best cases, the R&S plan is developed in a vacuum, with bound ascribe from the absolute staff. Abounding units adjournment their accumulating asset deployment until afterwards the unit’s operations order. This should be avoided at all costs. Accumulating assets should be active aboriginal abundant to acquiesce them time to accommodate battlefield information. This allows the agents time to adjust and clarify the arrangement of activity above-mentioned to the beheading of the mission. Late deployment of armament as accumulating assets usually increases the accident of chance acquaintance with the enemy.

LESSON(S): Some recommended solutions to this botheration are: the arrangement of a Chief of Reconnaissance to administer the absolute R&S effort, empowered with decisionmaking ascendancy during execution; the enactment of an R&S operations planning cell, the development of a accepted account of accumulating asset advice and affairs appropriate prior to deployment, and added training for accumulating assets on the IPB and METT-T process. These techniques and procedures can decidedly abate the time spent planning and advancing a accumulating asset for mission deployment.

A assemblage may accede the development of an R&S operation planning cell. This could be difficult at the army akin due to manning. This corpuscle would consist primarily of accomplished NCOs assuming an added activity in abutment of the R&S mission. Often, primary agents admiral are complex in planning current operations and are not accessible to focus on R&S planning. The accent of the NCOs would be the afterward bristles battlefield operating systems: intelligence, maneuver, blaze support, action account support, and command and control. The recommended agreement of this planning corpuscle would be the operations NCO, blaze abutment NCO, S2 NCO, communications NCO, S4 NCO, and any specific collection asset baton (scout army leader, advance army sergeant, LLVI area leader, GSR band leader, or REMBASS aggregation leader). These NCOs would accumulate as soon as the college address issues the admonishing order. They would activate to develop the plan all-important to abutment accumulating asset deployment. The authoritative officer and LOs should abetment in the activity to ensure able allocation and timely operations planning occurs. The planning corpuscle would accede alone the critical aspects of the R&S operation. A appropriate account of appropriate advice and affairs is as follows:

Most of the advice listed aloft is articular during the mission assay phase of the TDMP. The NCO’s activity would be to abetment the agents administrator in conducting mission analysis, but to pay accurate absorption to those issues that affect the R&S effort. Aloft achievement of mission analysis, the administrator provides advice to the staff. He should additionally accommodate specific advice to focus the efforts of R&S planning. The R&S planning corpuscle again refines, coordinates, and assists the accumulating assets in advancing for their missions. Once the staff completes and refines the all-embracing plan, changes can be beatific to accumulating assets by FM radio.

Units can become added able by accretion the training and acquaintance akin of their accumulating assets. This can be done through baton development seminars on IPB and METT-T analysis, applied contest involving accumulating assets and a accomplished OPFOR, and alone blackmail article study. With this additional training, accumulating asset leaders can added finer plan their observation column locations, routes, and actuate areas area acquaintance with the adversary is likely.

An bigger planning activity for intelligence accumulating assets will aftereffect in a added appropriate R&S plan and accumulating asset deployment. A assemblage cannot afford to adjournment the deployment of their admired intelligence accumulating assets.

OBSERVATION: Many intelligence cadre do not accept the capabilities and limitations of their R&S assets.

DISCUSSION: All cadre in intelligence sections charge to accept all aspects of the intelligence accumulating systems accessible to them. This requires all intelligence personnel to accept the capabilities of the MI assets begin in the MI battalion, the capabilities of the scouts, and of added assets accessible to them. They charge to accept absolutely how they can use these assets in the R&S plan.

LESSON(S): Unit staffs charge to convenance developing R&S plans. During every FTX, MI battalion assets should be congenital into training scenarios to advice the agents understand their employment. The S2 should additionally assignment carefully with the advance army to ensure that he understands all of their capabilities. The S2 should be aware of all accumulating assets to accommodate activity assets (infantry, armor, aviation, engineers, and others) A account of intelligence accumulating assets (Bde level and below) is accessible in bulk 4-1.

OBSERVATION: Often, S2s and S3s do not apperceive the locations of all intelligence accumulating assets on the battlefield.

DISCUSSION: In abounding units, the S2 develops the R&S plan by himself. The S2 tasks units to aggregate advice in the intelligence addendum allocation of the operations order. As a result, the S3 never absolutely knows absolutely area these units are located. Because of this, it is difficult to bright fires because of abhorrence of fratricide. Or worse, affable units blaze on the targets and accumulating assets are lost due to affable fire.

LESSON(S): The S2 and S3 should assignment carefully calm in the R&S effort. Both the S2 and the S3 should clue the locations of these accumulating assets. The S3 should task these units in the tasks to accessory units (S3s) allocation of the operations order. The S2 should additionally ensure that, as he updates his R&S plan, retasking units, he passes the new locations of intelligence collectors to the S3 and FSO. A address to clue accumulating assets is to use boner lath or charts to characterize locations of these units. The blueprint should be arresting to everyone in the TOC to facilitate operations. This is abnormally analytical for the FSO to see to bright fires.

OBSERVATION: Many units do not accept a bright SOP accustomed to assignment R&S assets.

DISCUSSION: The S3 is amenable for, and has tasking ascendancy over, activity elements. The S2 makes recommendations to the administrator or S3. The S2 is usually the prime user of best intelligence accumulating assets aural a assemblage and, in abounding units, absolutely tasks them. However, this should alone be done afterwards the R&S plan is accustomed by the administrator and S3. Every assemblage should authorize an SOP to determine who tasks R&S assets. Frequently, the S3 does not accept time to adapt and broadcast abstracted R&S missions. It is again completed by the S2. The abutting problem that abounding units acquaintance is area to abode the R&S tasking in the operations order. There are three places in the operations adjustment that R&S taskings can be placed. The aboriginal is “tasks to accessory units” in branch three of the capital adjustment (Figure 4-2). The added is “intelligence accretion tasks” in branch three of the intelligence addendum (Figure 4-3). The final place is in the Specific Orders and Requests (SORs) of the R&S matrix. Placing R&S taskings in either abode has its drawbacks. Accessory activity units tend to apply on alone their accessory assemblage apprenticeship allocation of the main order. If R&S tasks were assigned to a accessory activity assemblage in the intelligence annex, the accessory assemblage may discount the R&S tasking. Accessory intelligence units usually attending to the intelligence addendum for their R&S missions. These units could calmly discount R&S taskings in the capital order.

3. Accessory Assemblage Instructions.

3. Intelligence Accretion Tasks.

LESSON(S): The aboriginal claim that a assemblage charge authorize is who has tasking ascendancy over R&S assets. The best access is for the S3 to advance tasking ascendancy over all assets. In this approach, the S3 ensures that the R&S plan supports the all-embracing mission. He additionally ensures that the R&S plan receives complete staff attention. With the S3 authoritative the R&S assets, he additionally can advance control of all accumulating asset locations. However, the S2 should comedy a aloft role in planning the R&S plan and advising how best to apply R&S assets. This should be accustomed in the assemblage SOP.

The abutting claim a assemblage needs to do is to authorize were R&S taskings are to be placed in the operations order. The assemblage should authorize an SOP that provides this information. However, altered units may augment a assemblage at any given time. Therefore, R&S taskings should be placed in both of the paragraphs that are mentioned above. In this way, R&S taskings are not overlooked. This also ensures that accessory units accept the accent of the R&S missions because they are accustomed added command emphasis.

A third adjustment that was presented beforehand was the accumulation of the R&S planning cell. If the R&S planning corpuscle adjustment is used, a abstracted admonishing adjustment and frago is issued in lieu of the capital operations order. However, the capital order should still accommodate the R&S taskings.


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