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United Barrage Alliance (ULA) accept launched their Atlas V carrying NASA’s Juno delving on its way to Jupiter on Friday. The ascendance of the flagship mission was delayed by 51 minutes, due to a arena aperture and a baiter in the ambit box, above-mentioned to ablution at 12:25 bounded time. Juno will become the aboriginal aircraft to apogee Jupiter aback the Galileo delving was deorbited in 2003.
Flagship Mission To Jupiter:
Juno is the additional mission in NASA’s New Frontiers programme. The aboriginal mission, New Horizons, is currently on its way to Pluto and the Kuiper Belt. It is accepted to fly accomplished Pluto and its four moons in July 2015. A third mission, OSIRIS-REx, is accepted to be launched in 2016. It will abstraction the asteroid 1999 RQ36 afore abiding a sample to Earth. The New Frontiers programme calls for medium-class aircraft for all-embracing exploration.
The Juno aircraft was congenital by Lockheed Martin for NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It has a circuit stabilised configuration, with a accumulation of 3,625 kilograms. Unlike antecedent missions to the alien planets, which accept acclimated Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) for power, Juno will be powered by three solar panels, anniversary barometer 2.65 metres in width, and 8.9 metres in breadth aback absolutely deployed. A LEROS-1b agent will be acclimated for advance corrections and alternate insertion.
Juno carries nine instruments. The Microwave Radiometer (MWR) will be acclimated to abstraction calefaction actuality emitted from Jupiter in adjustment to abstraction the dynamics and agreement of its atmosphere. The Jovian Bittersweet Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) will conduct bittersweet ascertainment and spectroscopic assay of the high levels of Jupiter’s atmosphere, which will additionally advice scientists to accept the anatomy of the atmosphere.
The Flux Gate Magnetometer (FGM) will be acclimated to aftermath a map of Jupiter’s alluring field, and to abstraction how the magnetosphere is structured in the planet’s arctic regions. Studies of the alluring acreage will additionally aid investigations into the centralized dynamics of the planet. The Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC) will advice with the mapping by acceptance Juno to artifice its position accurately.
Juno’s Arctic Magnetosphere Suite of instruments consists of the Juno Active Particle Detector Instrument (JEDI), the Jovian Auroral Distributions Experiment (JADE), the Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS), the Radio and Plasma Waves Experiment, or WAVES, as able-bodied as JIRAM.
This accumulated set of instruments will abstraction electric currents abounding forth acreage curve in the planet’s alluring field, and ultraviolet and electromagnetic emissions and the administration of active particles in Jupiter’s aurorae.
JADE will abstraction the activity and administration of particles in the arctic regions of Jupiter’s magnetosphere, whilst JEDI will abstraction the activity and administration of ions, decidedly hydrogen, helium, oxygen and sulphur, to see if there is any change over time. WAVES will attending for currents aural the aurora, and analyze them to Jupiter’s radio emissions to authorize how the currents affect the emissions. UVS will almanac abstracts on adventure ultraviolet radiation.
JunoCam (JCM) will aftermath three-colour images of Jupiter, which will be acclimated for beheld studies of Jupiter, giving ambience to added observations, and for accessible release.
As allotment of a accessible beat programme, three Lego figurines are actuality agitated aboard the spacecraft, depicting the Roman god Jupiter, the goddess Juno, and seventeenth-century Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei.
A applique donated by the Italian Space Agency with an angel of Galileo and some argument from one of his observations of Jupiter has been absorbed to the spacecraft’s propulsion system.
The aircraft is called Juno afterwards the Roman goddess of marriage, and wife of the god Jupiter. According to Roman belief Jupiter hid himself in clouds, about Juno was able to see through those clouds, and bare the accuracy about Jupiter.
In accession to these instruments, Juno will additionally use its communications systems to abstraction Jupiter’s gravitational field, as allotment of the Force Science Experiment. By transmitting signals to Earth and belief their Doppler shift, scientists achievement to be able to abstraction how Jupiter’s force affects Juno, and appropriately accretion a greater compassionate of the centralized anatomy of the planet.
Following launch, Juno will booty bristles years to ability Jupiter. Two years into its journey, in October 2013, it will acknowledgment to Earth for a flyby which will board a gravitational assist, affective it into the alien solar system. In August 2016 Juno will access Jovian, or zenocentric, orbit, alpha fourteen months of belief Jupiter from orbit. Juno is advised to accomplish in a arctic apogee about Jupiter.
Juno will be the ninth aircraft to appointment the planet Jupiter. Called afterwards the Roman god of the sky, Jupiter is about 318 times added massive than Earth, and over 1,300 times beyond in agreement of volume. It orbits the Sun at a ambit of 5.2 ample units, commutual one apogee every 4331 days. A gas giant, it is comprised of about 90 percent hydrogen and 10 percent helium, with trace amounts of added gases, including methane and ammonia.
Jupiter has 64 accepted accustomed satellites, and four rings. Its better satellites are the four Galilean Moons, which were apparent in 1609 or 1610 by Galileo Galilei. These were the aboriginal altar to be apparent orbiting a angelic anatomy added than the Earth, and helped to belie the geocentric archetypal of the cosmos.
Jupiter itself is covered in bands of clouds absolute crystallised ammonia, with wind speeds of about 100 metres per second. The Great Red Spot, a storm two or three times the admeasurement of Earth, is one of the best acclaimed and abiding appearance in Jupiter’s atmosphere, accepting been empiric for over 180 years. Smaller storms accept additionally been observed, including a additional red spot; Oval BA, additionally accepted as Red Spot Junior, which was formed in 2000 by the blow of three added storms.
The aboriginal aircraft to appointment Jupiter was Pioneer 10, which was launched on 3 March 1972 aboard an Atlas LV-3C Centaur-D with a Star-37E bang motor. It flew accomplished Jupiter and its Galilean Moons in December 1973; extensive a abutting access of about 200,000 kilometres at 02:26 UTC on 4 December.
Pioneer 10 was additionally the aboriginal aircraft to accomplish solar escape velocity, and aback casual Jupiter it has connected on its way out of the solar system. The aftermost manual detected from it was accustomed on 23 January 2003, at a ambit of over 80 ample units.
Pioneer 11 was launched on the alpha flight of the Atlas SLV-3D Centaur-D1A on 6 April 1973, additionally able with a Star-37E bang motor.
It flew accomplished Jupiter in December 1974, and at 05:21 UTC on 3 December, it fabricated its abutting approach. Application a gravitational abetment from Jupiter, it flew on appear Saturn, afore additionally abrogation the solar system.
The two Pioneer missions to the alien solar arrangement paved the way for the Voyager programme; an adjunct of the Mariner programme which saw two added missions to Jupiter launched by beyond Titan IIIE rockets, afresh application Star-37E bang motors. Both of these missions were launched from Barrage Circuitous 41 at Cape Canaveral, the aforementioned barrage circuitous from which Juno will abandon today.
Voyager 2 was launched on 20 August 1977, with Voyager 1 on 5 September. Voyager 1 followed a altered aisle to Voyager 2, and was advanced of its sister ability by the end of the year. It accomplished Jupiter in March 1989, afterward two months of celebratory the planet as it approached.
At 12:05 UTC on 5 March, it anesthetized Jupiter at a ambit of 348,890 kilometres. Observations of Jupiter connected until 13 March, as Voyager 1 flew abroad from Jupiter en avenue to its November 1980 appointment with Saturn.
On 25 April, beneath than a fortnight afterwards Voyager 1 accomplished its observations of Jupiter, Voyager 2 began to accomplish abroad observations. A little over two months later, at 22:29 on 9 July, Voyager 2 fabricated its abutting access of 721,760 kilometres from Jupiter.
Like its predecessor, it connected to accomplish observations as it ancient appear Saturn, catastrophe on 5 August. Voyager 2 went on to fly accomplished Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, acceptable the alone aircraft to date to appointment all four alien planets.
The Ulysses spacecraft, which was deployed from Space Shuttle Discovery during the STS-41 mission in October 1990 by agency of an Inertial High Date (IUS), flew accomplished Jupiter on 8 February 1992.
Ulysses was a mission to abstraction the Sun, and its appointment to Jupiter was not primarily to abstraction the planet, but to accretion a gravitational abetment which added its alternate inclination.
Despite this, Ulysses did booty readings of Jupiter’s magnetosphere during the flyby. Ulysses fabricated a second, distant, flyby of Jupiter in 2004 during which it took added readings. The aircraft was assuredly deactivated on 30 June 2009.
Galileo was the aboriginal mission to abode a aircraft into apogee about Jupiter. It additionally agitated an atmospheric delving which became the aboriginal aircraft to access Jupiter’s atmosphere.
Launched aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis on 18 October 1989 during the STS-34 mission, and auspiciously deployed beneath than seven hours later, Galileo was propelled into heliocentric apogee by agency of an Inertial High Stage.
Galileo had originally been advised to be deployed application a Centaur-G high date during the STS-61-G mission.
The Shuttle-Centaur programme was annulled afterwards the accident of Challenger due to apropos about aggregation assurance in the accident of a barrage abort, and as a aftereffect the Galileo mission had to be redesigned for deployment with the beneath able IUS.
This apprenticed the aircraft authoritative a flyby of Venus, and two of Earth, afore assuredly accession at Jupiter. En route, it flew accomplished the asteroids 951 Gaspra and 243 Ida. During the flyby of Ida it apparent Dactyl, the aboriginal accustomed accessory to be activate orbiting an asteroid.
On 13 July 1995, an atmospheric delving was appear from Galileo. It entered the atmosphere of Jupiter on 7 December, afterwards which it operated for 58 account afore it overheated, or was ashamed beneath the burden of Jupiter’s atmosphere. The aboriginal abstracts alternate by the delving accustomed at 22:15 UTC, about accustomed the ambit amid Jupiter and Earth; this would accept been transmitted several account earlier.
At 02:10 UTC on 8 December, the Galileo aircraft was accepted to be in apogee about Jupiter, afterwards a arresting was accustomed acknowledging the end of its alternate admittance burn.
Galileo remained in apogee of Jupiter for over seven years and nine months, during which time it fabricated abounding discoveries, including the anatomy of the planet’s rings, the attendance of a alluring acreage about the moon Ganymede and the accessible actuality of a subsurface ocean on the moon Europa.
On 21 September 2003 Galileo was deorbited in adjustment to anticipate a accessible blow with one of Jupiter’s accustomed satellites, which could accept led to contamination. Galileo entered Jupiter’s atmosphere at 18:57 UTC afterward a ballista about the moon Amalthea the antecedent November.
Cassini flew accomplished Jupiter on 30 December 2000, accepting a force abetment for its adventure to Saturn. At the time, Cassini was a little beneath center to Saturn, accepting been launched aboard a Titan IV(401)B rocket on 15 October 1997, and assuredly entering apogee about Saturn on 1 July 2004.
During the flyby the aircraft produced 26,000 images of Jupiter, including some of the best abundant pictures anytime alternate of the planet. Studies of the abstracts and images alternate by Cassini helped scientists to accept added acutely the acclimate patterns and apportionment aural Jupiter’s atmosphere.
New Horizons was the best contempo aircraft to appointment Jupiter, aerial accomplished in February 2007 to aces up a force abetment for its mission to the dwarf planet Pluto. New Horizons was launched by an Atlas V 551 with a Star-48B bang motor from SLC-41 on 19 January 2006, at which time Pluto was still advised a planet.
During its flyby of Jupiter, which accomplished abutting access at 05:43 UTC on 28 February 2007, New Horizons produced images of the planet, its satellites and rings, and recorded abstracts on its magnetosphere.
Juno launched aloft Atlas V AV-029, which flew in the 551 configuration, with a bristles accent burden fairing, bristles solid rocket motors assiduity the aboriginal stage, and a single-engined Centaur (SEC) additional stage. This was the additional time the 551 agreement has flown; its antecedent barrage actuality that of New Horizons. In total, it is the twenty seventh barrage of an Atlas V.
The bristles accent burden allowance has an exact alien bore of 5.4 metres, and is accessible three altered lengths. The “short” allowance is 20.7 metres long, whilst the “medium” breadth is 23.4 metres, and a “long” allowance 26.5 metres long. The bristles accent fairings are produced by RUAG, a Swiss aggregation which additionally produces a agnate allowance for the Ariane 5 rocket.
Juno was encapsulated in a “short” fairing, the breadth which has been acclimated for all Atlas V launches with bristles accent fairings, except for the NROL-41 mission aftermost September, which acclimated the “medium” fairing.
The barrage of Juno was the 175th flight of an Atlas rocket with a Centaur high stage. The Atlas-Centaur began aerial in May 1962, with its alpha flight catastrophe in failure.
Consisting of an Atlas intercontinental ballistic missile advocacy a Centaur cryogenically-propelled high stage, the Atlas-Centaur retained the Atlas missile’s abnormal aboriginal date configuration, with two of its three aboriginal date engines on a advertisement booster assemblage which would be jettisoned to save weight aback those engines were no best needed. The third, sustainer, agent would again ability the aboriginal date alone for the butt of its burn.
The aboriginal acknowledged barrage of an Atlas Centaur occurred in November 1963, agreement a cartoon burden into orbit. It apparent the aboriginal time a rocket powered in allotment by aqueous hydrogen had accomplished orbit. Despite this success, four of the aboriginal bristles launches concluded in failure, including the AC-5 analysis flight which fell aback assimilate its barrage pad and exploded afterwards an agent abortion two abnormal afterwards liftoff, consistent in a aggressive which acquired cogent accident to the barrage complex.
Eventually the Atlas-Centaur became a acknowledged and reliable barrage system, and by the time the Atlas SLV-3D Centaur-D1AR, the aftermost alternative to be absolutely called Atlas-Centaur, fabricated its final flight in May 1983, it had accomplished 51 acknowledged launches from 61 attempts. The Atlas SLV-3D Centaur-D1AR was replaced by the Atlas G, which acclimated the aforementioned Centaur-D1AR, but with a continued aboriginal stage. It fabricated seven launches amid 1984 and 1989 with two failures.
The Atlas I was the aboriginal affiliate of the Atlas ancestors to be articular application a appearance rather than a letter. Essentially identical to the Atlas G, it featured bigger advice systems, including agenda components. Operated amid July 1990 and April 1997, eleven were launched with three failures.
The Atlas I was replaced by the added able Atlas II, which featured a continued aboriginal date and a continued Centaur, as able-bodied as added able engines on the aboriginal date and booster unit. The Atlas II aboriginal flew in December 1991, with the Atlas IIA; a alternative with uprated Centaur engines, authoritative its aboriginal flight in June 1992.
A third variant, the Atlas IIAS, which featured four Castor-4A solid rocket motors assiduity the aboriginal stage, began aerial in December 1993. In all, the three Atlas II variants fabricated 63 launches, all of which were successful. The last, an Atlas IIAS, was launched on 31 August 2004.
The Atlas III was a brief rocket, operated from May 2000 to February 2005. The Atlas IIIA offered a agnate burden accommodation to the Atlas IIAS, whilst the Atlas IIIB had a greater accommodation through use of a continued Centaur.
It bridged the gap amid the Atlas II and the Atlas V; introducing a accepted aboriginal date design, the Russian-built RD-180 capital engine, and the single-engine Centaur high date for all Atlas IIIA launches, and as an advantage for the Atlas IIIB. Two Atlas IIIAs were launched, forth with one Atlas IIIB with a accepted twin-engine Centaur, and three IIIBs with the newer single-engine model.
The Atlas V fabricated its alpha flight on 21 August 2002, accustomed the Hot Bird 6 accessory for Eutelsat. It alien assorted configurations, with four and bristles accent fairings, any cardinal amid aught and bristles boosters, and distinct of bifold agent Centaur high stages.
To date, all launches accept acclimated the single-engine Centaur, and a dual-engined adaptation has not yet been developed, about afterward Thursday’s advertisement that the Atlas V 412 agreement would be acclimated to barrage Boeing’s CST-100 aircraft from 2015, a bifold agent Centaur will now charge to be developed.
The aboriginal date of the Atlas V is the Common Core Booster (CCB). Like the Common Booster Cores acclimated on the Delta IV, the CCB was advised to be ample in parallel, acceptance a “Heavy” Atlas V with three CCBs. This has never flown, with development actuality alone in favour of the Delta IV Heavy. It is possible; however, that it may be bare to abutment manned bartering missions in the future.
The Common Core Booster is fuelled by RP-1 propellant, oxidised by aqueous oxygen. A distinct RD-180 agent admiral the stage. The Centaur additional date is powered by an RL10A-4-2 afire aqueous hydrogen in aqueous oxygen. The bristles solid rocket motors were bogus by Aerojet, and board an boilerplate of about 1.1 meganewtons of advance each.
The barrage of Juno began with the agitation of the RD-180 capital engine, 2.7 abnormal afore the admission accomplished zero. At T-0, the solid rocket motors ignited, and about 1.1 abnormal afterwards AV-029 began a fast ascend abroad from Cape Canaveral. A additional afterwards liftoff, the agent accomplished best thrust, and afterwards accession 1.7 abnormal it began to manoeuvre to the actual attitude for its ascendance to orbit.
About 34.5 abnormal into its mission, AV-029 anesthetized through Mach 1, alpha supersonic flight. A little beneath twelve abnormal afterwards it accomplished Max-Q, the breadth of best activating pressure. The solid boosters burnt out 85 to 90 abnormal afterwards launch, and 104 abnormal into the flight they were jettisoned.
Three account and 24.9 abnormal into the flight, the burden allowance afar from about Juno. Afterwards this, the advanced amount reactor, which helps to bedew accordance aural the fairing, was additionally jettisoned. About 233 abnormal afterwards barrage the RD-180 agent throttled bottomward to advance a connected dispatch of 5G, in adjustment to absolute stresses on the payload.
Booster Agent Cutoff, the end of aboriginal date flight, came with the burning of the CCBs propellant, about four account and 27.2 abnormal afterwards launch. Six abnormal afterwards the CCB afar from the Centaur, which afire ten abnormal afterwards break to activate the aboriginal of two burns. This aboriginal bake lasted bristles account and fifty eight seconds.
Once the bake was complete, the Centaur entered a bank appearance abiding thirty minutes, 48.2 seconds. The additional and aftermost Centaur bake was again performed, abiding nine account and seven tenths of a second. With the final bake complete AV-029 manoeuvred to the actual attitude for aircraft separation, which came 53 minutes, 49.2 abnormal into the mission.
AV-029 was the fiftieth rocket to be launched from Space Barrage Circuitous 41 at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Congenital as a Titan IIIC barrage pad in the 1960s, Barrage Circuitous 41 was aboriginal acclimated in December 1965. It was originally allotment of the Integrate-Transfer-Launch complex, forth with LC-40.
Rockets were accumulated in the Vertical Integration Building (VIB), and again confused to the barrage pad on rails, afore the burden was installed at the pad application the adaptable account tower. The VIB was burst in 2006.
Following ten Titan IIIC launches amid 1965 and 1969, mostly accustomed IDSCP and Vela satellites, the circuitous was adapted to board the Titan IIIE. This Titan configuration, which acclimated a Centaur-D1T high stage, fabricated seven launches from LC-41, and afterward its abortion to barrage the Sphinx accessory in February 1974, the Titan IIIE auspiciously accomplished the Viking probes to Mars, the Voyager probes to the alien planets, and the Helios probes to abstraction the Sun.
Following the aftermost Titan IIIE barrage in 1977, LC-41 was anachronistic for several years, until the Titan IV programme started. Amid 1989 and 1999, ten Titan IV launches were conducted from SLC-41, alpha with the type’s alpha flight on 14 June 1989. In 1997, the circuitous was renamed from Barrage Circuitous 41 to Space Barrage Circuitous 41.
The aftermost two Titan launches from SLC-41 concluded in failure; the penultimate barrage was the final flight of the Titan IVA, which was aerial the NROL-7 mission to arrange a Mercury signals intelligence satellite. The rocket, Titan IV(401)A A-20 or K-17, called Elwood by its barrage aggregation afterwards Dan Aykroyd’s appearance in The Blues Brothers (the Centaur was called Jake afterwards John Belushi’s character), was destroyed by ambit assurance 40 abnormal afterwards barrage afterward a advice arrangement malfunction.
The final Titan to barrage from SLC-41 was a Titan IV(402)B, accustomed a Defense Abutment Program satellite. This vehicle, B-27 or K-32, accomplished orbit, and the aboriginal date of its Inertial High Date accursed to abode the burden into its alteration orbit; about the aboriginal and additional stages of the IUS bootless to separate, and aloft agitation of the additional date the agent began to circuit out of control.
The bake bootless to abode the aircraft into this actual ambition orbit, and in accession the aircraft abiding accident which acquired a ammunition band to breach anon afterwards aircraft separation.
Six months afterwards the Titan IV fabricated its aftermost barrage from the circuitous the anchored and adaptable account building were demolished, and the pad was adapted for the Atlas V. The aboriginal Atlas V barrage from the pad was the alpha flight, in August 2002.
The aboriginal bristles Atlas V launches from SLC-41 all deployed bartering communications satellites. The sixth barrage deployed NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and the seventh was that of the New Horizons spacecraft.
Since then, three added bartering communications satellites accept been launched, in accession to NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and Solar Dynamics Observatory, two X-37B flights, the abstruse USA-207 “PAN” satellite, and several aggressive payloads for the US Air Force and National Reconnaissance Office. AV-029 is the twenty third Atlas V to fly from SLC-41; the added four were launched from SLC-3E at Vandenberg Air Force Base.
AV-029 was accumulated in the Vertical Integration Facility; a belfry amid 550 metres southeast of Space Barrage Circuitous 41, which is acclimated to accumulate all Atlas V rockets launched from the complex. Accumulated aloft a adaptable barrage platform, AV-029 was formed to the barrage pad Thursday, with rollout alpha at 12:01 UTC, and abiding about 39 minutes.
The bounded weather – as accepted – was not a concern for a barrage on 5 August, as abundant as there were some affair apropos Tropical Storm Emily.
As of Wednesday evening, the storm was about 1850 kilometres to the southeast of Cape Canaveral, affective to the west-northwest afore actuality accepted to arch northwest. Due to accessible landfall in the Caribbean, it was not accessible to adumbrate absolutely area the storm will go, or whether it could accept afflicted the launch. In the end, it didn’t become a factor.
This was the fourth of bristles Atlas V launches actuality conducted this year; the fifth is accepted to action in backward November, with the Curiosity departer apprenticed for Mars. Before
then, United Barrage Alliance are accepted to barrage two Delta II rockets. A Delta II 7920H will arrange the GRAIL aircraft in aboriginal September, and again a Delta II 7920 will barrage the NPP acclimate accessory in backward October. It still charcoal cryptic whether or not these will be the aftermost flights of Delta II rockets.
(Images via Larry Sullivan – MaxQ Entertainment/NASASpaceflight.com, L2 Historical’s 500gbs of hi res photos, and NASA.gov)
(As the shuttle agile retire, NSF and L2 are accouterment abounding alteration akin coverage, accessible no area abroad on the internet. Click here: http://www.nasaspaceflight.com/l2/ – to appearance how you can abutment NASASpaceflight.com)
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