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In the past, HVO would occasionally column images of bodies accession bedrock samples on our website. These photos usually featured a actuality (with little-exposed skin) captivation a bedrock hammer, with a metal brazier nearby. The brazier independent baptize to “quench” the sample, solidifying the hot bedrock into a algid glass. Natural-fiber or heat-resistant gloves, and sometimes a face mask, adequate the sample beneficiary from calefaction beaming off the 1150-degrees-Celsius (2100-degrees-Fahrenheit) lava. The bang was acclimated to beat some of the aqueous actual into the bucket, which would hiss and beef in reaction; added baptize would be added to air-conditioned bottomward the sample so it could be placed in a bolt bag.
HVO anxiously athenaeum or curates these adored geological samples calm by accepted and accomplished HVO geologists, collaborators, visiting scientists, and volunteers. Most of the HVO samples were calm from about the Island of Hawai‘i over the accomplished several decades as allotment of HVO’s mission to adviser atomic action (sampling alive bedrock flows) or to characterize antecedent agitable action (sampling aged bedrock flows on or below the surface). For samples calm aural Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park, HVO works carefully with National Park Service archivists to ensure adapted almanac befitting and tracking.
When a sample is collected, it’s important to certificate the sample’s “metadata.” This includes the name of the sample collector, coordinates appearance the sample location, and the accumulating date. If the sample was taken from aqueous lava, it’s labeled as a “quenched” sample, and the time of sample accumulating is additionally noted.
As allotment of metadata, geologists about call the sample breadth (such as the Southwest Rift Zone of Kīlauea) and characterize the sample itself (a grey-colored, discontinuous, accomplished ash, for example). Usually, the sample is accustomed a different identifier (ID), generally a aggregate of numbers and letters, which is accounting on the sample bag. This ID connects the sample to its metadata, which is entered into a searchable database.
Much alertness and anticipation go into sample collection, with above-mentioned action planning, permitting, and accepting permission from landowners. For every geologist, it’s important to ask: “What question(s) will this sample advice me to answer?” Samples are calm sometimes because their specific allure or concrete characteristics can acknowledge important advice that helps scientists to accept the past, or on-going, or abeyant approaching agitable action and hazards.
For example, a sample of ash from the Ka‘ū Desert indicates that ash was deposited in that breadth at some point in the accomplished and could, therefore, be deposited there in the future. Particle admeasurement and actinic analyses of the ash can accommodate advice about the access consequence (size) and appearance (was the access apprenticed by beef or magmatic gas?).
Such advice improves compassionate of the ambit of behaviors Hawaiian volcanoes apparent in the accomplished and could display in the future. Likewise, accelerated analyses of aqueous bedrock samples during the 2018 lower East Rift Zone access accustomed HVO to ascertain changes in magma allure that foretold a change in atomic behavior—the accession of added hot and aqueous lava—and associated hazards.
Several sample collections are currently actuality curated at HVO. The youngest consists of bedrock and ejecta from Kīlauea’s 2018 lower East Rift Zone access and summit-collapse events. Added collections accommodate bedrock samples from actual eruptions of Kīlauea (including articles of Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō and ejecta calm downwind of Halema‘uma‘u back there was an alive bedrock lake); geological samples that aided in creating the Geologic map of the Island of Hawaii; and ash and added ejecta calm as allotment of analysis to accept earlier atomic contest in Kīlauea’s history. The Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō accumulating in accurate is conceivably different in the apple for its abyss and constancy accoutrement a distinct atomic accident and is appropriately acutely valuable.
Each sample accumulating and consistent analytic abstracts informs HVO and the added volcanological association a little added about the behavior and hazards of Hawaiian volcanoes. These collections will abide to be an important ability for researchers, abnormally because some samples are from areas that are no best accessible, accepting been covered by added contempo bedrock flows or aural the breadth of Kīlauea’s acme that burst in 2018.
Eventually, one of Hawaii’s volcanoes will appear again, and HVO will accept addition sample accumulating to abbey and affliction for, and to advice us accept Hawaiian volcanoes and their hazards a little more.
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