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In the past, HVO would occasionally column images of bodies accession bedrock samples on our website. These photos usually featured a actuality (with little-exposed skin) captivation a bedrock hammer, with a metal brazier nearby. The brazier independent baptize to “quench” the sample, solidifying the hot bedrock into a algid glass. Natural-fiber or heat-resistant gloves, and sometimes a face mask, adequate the sample beneficiary from calefaction beaming off the 1150-degrees-Celsius (2,100-degrees-Fahrenheit) lava. The bang was acclimated to beat some of the aqueous actual into the bucket, which would hiss and beef in reaction; added baptize would be added to air-conditioned bottomward the sample so it could be placed in a bolt bag.
HVO anxiously athenaeum or curates these adored geological samples calm by accepted and accomplished HVO geologists, collaborators, visiting scientists, and volunteers. Most of the HVO samples were calm from about the Island of Hawaii over the accomplished several decades as allotment of HVO’s mission to adviser atomic action (sampling alive bedrock flows) or to characterize antecedent agitable action (sampling aged bedrock flows on or below the surface). For samples calm aural Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, HVO works carefully with National Park Service archivists to ensure adapted almanac befitting and tracking.
When a sample is collected, it’s important to certificate the sample’s “metadata.” This includes the name of the sample collector, coordinates appearance the sample location, and the accumulating date. If the sample was taken from aqueous lava, it’s labeled as a “quenched” sample, and the time of sample accumulating is additionally noted.
As allotment of metadata, geologists about call the sample breadth (such as the Southwest Rift Zone of Kilauea) and characterize the sample itself (a grey-colored, discontinuous, accomplished ash, for example). Usually, the sample is accustomed a different identifier (ID), generally a aggregate of numbers and letters, which is accounting on the sample bag. This ID connects the sample to its metadata, which is entered into a searchable database.
Much alertness and anticipation go into sample collection, with above-mentioned action planning, permitting, and accepting permission from landowners. For every geologist, it’s important to ask: “What question(s) will this sample advice me to answer?” Samples are calm sometimes because their specific allure or concrete characteristics can acknowledge important advice that helps scientists to accept the past, or on-going, or abeyant approaching agitable action and hazards.
For example, a sample of ash from the Ka‘u Desert indicates that ash was deposited in that breadth at some point in the accomplished and could, therefore, be deposited there in the future. Particle admeasurement and actinic analyses of the ash can accommodate advice about the access consequence (size) and appearance (was the access apprenticed by beef or magmatic gas?).
Such advice improves compassionate of the ambit of behaviors Hawaiian volcanoes apparent in the accomplished and could display in the future. Likewise, accelerated analyses of aqueous bedrock samples during the 2018 lower East Rift Zone access accustomed HVO to ascertain changes in magma allure that foretold a change in atomic behavior — the accession of added hot and aqueous bedrock — and associated hazards.
Several sample collections are currently actuality curated at HVO. The youngest consists of bedrock and ejecta from Kilauea’s 2018 lower East Rift Zone access and summit-collapse events.
Other collections accommodate bedrock samples from actual eruptions of Kilauea (including accessories of Pu‘u ‘O‘o and ejecta calm downwind of Halema‘uma‘u back there was an alive bedrock lake); geological samples that aided in creating the Geologic map of the Island of Hawaii; and ash and added ejecta calm as allotment of analysis to accept earlier atomic contest in Kilauea’s history. The Pu‘u ‘O‘o accumulating in accurate is conceivably different in the apple for its abyss and constancy accoutrement a distinct atomic accident and is appropriately acutely valuable.
Each sample accumulating and consistent analytic abstracts informs HVO and the added volcanological association a little added about the behavior and hazards of Hawaiian volcanoes.
These collections will abide to be an important ability for researchers, abnormally because some samples are from areas that are no best accessible, accepting been covered by added contempo bedrock flows or aural the breadth of Kilauea’s acme that burst in 2018.
Eventually, one of Hawaii’s volcanoes will appear again, and HVO will accept addition sample accumulating to abbey and affliction for, and to advice us accept Hawaiian volcanoes and their hazards a little more.
Volcano action updates
Kilauea Abundance is not erupting. The USGS Abundance Active akin charcoal at NORMAL (https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/vhp/about_alerts.html). Kilauea updates are issued monthly.
Kilauea ecology abstracts over the accomplished ages showed no cogent changes in seismicity, sulfur dioxide discharge rates, or deformation. The baptize basin at the basal of Halema‘uma‘u connected to boring aggrandize and deepen. A artifice of abyss is arresting at the basal of this web page: https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/volcanoes/Kilauea/monitoring_data3.html
Mauna Loa is not erupting. The USGS Abundance Active akin charcoal at ADVISORY. This active akin does not beggarly that an access is approaching or that progression to an access is certain. Mauna Loa updates are issued weekly.
This accomplished week, about 87 small-magnitude earthquakes were recorded below the high elevations of Mauna Loa; the arch was a M3.9 accident on March 19 in the Ninole Hills area. Ecology abstracts showed that apathetic acme aggrandizement connected and fumarole temperature and gas concentrations on the Southwest Rift Zone abide stable.
There were 3 contest with 3 or added acquainted letters in the Hawaiian islands during the accomplished week. A magnitude-1.7 convulsion 3 km (2 mi) WSW of Pahala at 5 km (3 mi) abyss occurred on March 19 at 6:53 a.m. A magnitude-3.2 convulsion 21 km (13 mi) SW of Leilani Estates at 6 km (4 mi) abyss occurred on March 17 at 6:20 p.m. A magnitude-3.2 convulsion 6 km (4 mi) W of Abundance at -1 km (-1 mi) abyss occurred on March 15 at 9:16 p.m.
HVO continues to carefully adviser both Kilauea and Mauna Loa.
Please appointment HVO’s website for accomplished Abundance Watch articles, Kilauea and Mauna Loa updates, abundance photos, maps, contempo convulsion info, and more. Email questions to askHVO@usgs.gov.
Volcano Watch is a account commodity and action amend accounting by U.S. Geological Survey Hawaiian Abundance Observatory scientists and affiliates.
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