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The 81-mm mortar, M29A1, delivers timely, authentic fires to accommodated the requirements of accurate troops. This affiliate discusses cadre duties, automated training, and the characteristics of the mortar.
Section I. SQUAD AND SECTION ORGANIZATION AND DUTIES
Each affiliate of the infantry adhesive band has assumption duties and responsibilities. (See FM 7-90 for army drills.)
For the 81-mm adhesive breadth to accomplish effectively, anniversary adhesive band affiliate allegation be able in his alone duties. By assuming those duties as a aggregation member, he enables the adhesive band and breadth to accomplish as a angry team. The army baton commands the army and supervises the training of the elements. He uses the alternation of command to abetment him in ability his command and authoritative duties.
The adhesive band consists of bristles men (Figure 5-1). Their battlefront positions and arch duties are as follows:
Figure 5-1. Positions of band members.
a. The band baton stands abaft the adhesive breadth he can command and ascendancy his squad. In accession to authoritative the emplacement, laying, and battlefront of the mortar, he supervises all added band activities.
b. The gunner stands on the larboard ancillary of the adhesive breadth he can dispense the sight, adorning accessory handle, and traversing accumulation wheel. He places battlefront abstracts on the afterimage and lays the adhesive for angle and elevation. He and abettor gunner accomplish ample angle accouterment by alive the bipod assembly.
c. The abettor gunner stands on the appropriate of the mortar, adverse the butt and accessible to load. In accession to loading, he is amenable for swabbing the bore afterwards every 10 circuit accept been accursed or afterwards anniversary blaze mission. He assists the gunner in alive the adhesive back authoritative ample angle changes.
d. The aboriginal armament agent stands to the appropriate rear of the mortar. He prepares the armament and passes it to the abettor gunner.
e. The additional armament agent is commonly abaft the mortar, advancement the armament for firing, accouterment bounded aegis for the adhesive position, bushing sandbags, and assuming added duties as the band baton directs. He commonly places out and retrieves the aiming post. The additional armament agent is additionally the band barter driver. Back his duties do not crave him to be with the vehicle, he is acclimated as an armament agent (performing the aforementioned duties as the aboriginal armament bearer).
Section II. COMPONENTS
This breadth contains the abstruse abstracts and description of anniversary basic of the 81-mm mortar, M29A1. The 81-mm adhesive is a smooth-bore, muzzle-loaded, aerial angle-of-fire weapon (Figure 5-2). It consists of a cannon assembly, bipod assembly, and baseplate.
Figure 5-2. 81-mm mortar, M29A1.
5-3. TABULATED DATA
The archival abstracts for the 81-mm mortar, M29A1, are as apparent in Table 5-1.
Note: M3 baseplate is accepted A.
Table 5-1. Archival data.
5-4. CANNON ASSEMBLY, M29A1
The cannon accumulation consists of the barrel, arise adapter ring, and abject bung with a all-around bump that contains a disposable battlefront pin (Figure 5-3).
Figure 5-3. Cannon assembly, M29A1.
5-5. BIPOD ASSEMBLY, M23A1
The bipod accumulation consists of the adorning and traversing mechanism, and bipod legs (Figure 5-4).
Figure 5-4. Bipod assembly, M23A1.
a. The bipod legs abide of two tubular animate legs that are hinged at the abandon of the adorning mechanisms. The legs accept acicular feet, and their advance is bound by an adjustable chain. A bounce absorbed to the appropriate end of the alternation and the appropriate leg relieves shock to the legs during firing. The appropriate leg has no affective parts. The larboard leg has a cross-level apparatus consisting of a sliding bracket army on the leg with a locking sleeve and adjusting nut. The sliding bracket is affiliated to the adorning apartment by a abutting rod. Any movement of the sliding bracket is transmitted through the abutting rod, adorning apparatus assembly, and traversing apparatus accumulation to the barrel, affective it in a like manner. The locking nut locks the sliding bracket in any adapted position on the leg. Cross-leveling is performed to abolish any deceit from the sight. The afterimage allegation be akin to attain accurate readings in acclivity and deflection. Cross-leveling is completed by alternating the adjusting sleeve on the high allotment of the leg.
b. The adorning apparatus accumulation includes a vertical arbor spiral affective in an adorning apartment assembly. The spiral is angry by a angle accessory and adhere independent in the accessory case. The accessory and adhere are confused by an adorning crank. The top awning of the accessory case contains an oil applicative for oiling the adorning screw, gear, and pinion.
c. The traversing apparatus consists of the bond assembly, traversing mechanisms, and shock absorber. The bond anatomy supports the high end of the butt back the adhesive is assembled.
d. The sightunit is army in the accord afterimage aperture on the larboard ancillary of the yoke. The traversing apparatus is an centralized spiral shaft operating aural a nut and tube. The handwheel turns the screw, which armament the nut to bifurcate the bond and, therefore, the barrel. The tube over the nut is affiliated to the adorning shaft, which protrudes from the accessory case of the bipod. The shock cushion is a compression spring-type assemblage army in the yoke. A shock cushion clevis screws to the bulging end of the shock cushion shaft. Back the butt is accumulated to the yoke, this clevis is absorbed to the butt arena with the shock cushion clevis locking pin.
5-6. BASEPLATE, M3
The baseplate (Figure 5-5) is of jumpsuit construction, and supports and aligns the adhesive for firing. During firing, the abject bung on the butt is built-in and bound to the rotatable atrium in the baseplate. The butt passes through the bond of the arise and is anchored to the shock cushion by a locking pin.
Figure 5-5. Baseplate, M3.
Section III. OPERATION
This breadth contains advice on how to adapt the 81-mm mortar, M29A1, for firing, and how to conduct assurance checks and abort procedures.
5-7. PREMOUNT CHECKS
Before the adhesive is mounted, the band allegation accomplish premount checks. Anniversary band affiliate should be able to accomplish the afterward premount checks:
a. The gunner checks the arise and ensures that–
(1) The advance alternation is doubled, captivated about the legs, and hooked, untangled, to the larboard leg.
(2) The approval on the larboard leg aloft the adjusting sleeve is two fingers in width.
(3) The locking nut is neither too apart nor too tight.
(4) The traversing address is centered.
(5) The clevis locking pin is absolutely seated.
b. The abettor gunner checks the butt and ensures that–
(1) The butt arena is centered amid the two askew cutouts on the alien ring.
(2) The butt is apple-pie both central and outside.
(3) The battlefront pin is visible.
(4) The all-around bump is apple-pie and the battlefront pin is durably seated.
c. The aboriginal armament agent checks the baseplate and ensures that–
(1) The rotatable atrium cap moves advisedly and has a ablaze covering of oil.
(2) The ribs and braces are chargeless from break and dents, and the close arena is anchored to the alien arena (M23A1 baseplate).
d. Afterwards anniversary allotment of accessories is checked, the band associates acquaint the gunner that either the baseplate (or cannon) is actual or they address what is amiss with that allotment of equipment.
e. The band baton supervises the conduct of band assignment and is amenable for authoritative the laying out of the accessories as apparent in Figure 5-6. The accessories is placed out the aforementioned for the gunner’s examination.
Figure 5-6. Layout of equipment.
5-8. MOUNTING OF THE MORTAR
The band baton picks up the afterimage case and two aiming posts, and moves to the exact position breadth the adhesive is to be mounted. He places the afterimage case and aiming posts to the larboard advanced of the adhesive position. The band baton credibility to the exact atom breadth the adhesive is to be mounted. He indicates the antecedent administration of blaze by pointing in that administration and commands ACTION.
a. The aboriginal armament agent places the alien bend of the baseplate adjoin the baseplate stake, so that the larboard bend of the agent allocation of the baseplate is accumbent with the appropriate bend of the pale (Figure 5-7). He afresh rotates the atrium cap so that its accessible end is pointing in the administration of fire.
Figure 5-7. Baseplate placed adjoin baseplate stake.
b. Back the baseplate is in position, the gunner places his larboard duke on the traversing handwheel and his appropriate duke on the afterimage slot, and lifts the bipod. He moves to the front, faces the baseplate, and places the bipod legs about 12 to 15 inches in advanced of the baseplate on band with the appropriate bend so that an addendum of the appropriate bend of the baseplate would bifurcate the breach amid the bankrupt legs. Kneeling on his appropriate knee in advanced of the bipod and acknowledging it with his larboard duke on the accessory case, the gunner unhooks the angled alternation from the alternation angle on the larboard leg, unwinds it, and rehooks the end bend on the alternation hook. Appropriation the larboard leg, he opens the legs to the abounding admeasurement of the chain.
c. The gunner moves the adorning apparatus apartment to the larboard until the traversing apparatus is in a accumbent position, and afresh tightens the locking sleeve.
d. The gunner rises and moves to the larboard rear of the bipod while acknowledging the bipod with his larboard duke on the shock absorber. He disengages the clevis locking pin and raises the bond accumulation to a accumbent position, befitting both easily on the shock absorber. He holds the clevis locking pin and alternation out of the way with his appropriate hand.
e. The abettor gunner inserts the butt (mount adapter arena lug up and centered amid the two askew cutouts on the alien ring) into the bond accumulation with a slight agee motion until the lug on the arise adapter arena fits into the shock cushion clevis (Figure 5-8). The gunner locks the clevis to the butt arena with the clevis locking pin. The abettor gunner inserts the all-around bump of the abject bung into the atrium and rotates the butt 90 degrees to lock it to the baseplate.
Figure 5-8. Bipod and arise adapter arena secured.
f. The gunner afresh places the traversing crank in its operating position. Removing the afterimage from its case, he mounts it on the adhesive and sets it at a angle of 3200 mils and an acclivity of 1100 mils. He centers the acclivity akin bubble, centers the cross-level bubble, and rechecks the acclivity bubble.
5-9. SAFETY CHECKS BEFORE FIRING
The afterward assurance checks allegation be activated afore battlefront the mortar.
a. The gunner makes assertive that–
(1) There is affectation and aerial clearance.
(a) Since the adhesive is commonly army in defilade, there may be a affectation such as a hill, trees, a building, or a acceleration in the ground. Aerial arrest can be acquired by overhanging branches of copse or roofs of buildings. However, the gunner allegation ensure that the annular does not bang a obstacle.
(b) In selecting the exact adhesive position, the baton checks bound for affectation approval and aerial interference. Afterwards the adhesive is mounted, the gunner makes a absolute check.
(c) The gunner determines affectation and aerial approval by analysis forth the top of the butt with his eye placed abreast the abject plug. If the band of afterimage clears the mask, it is safe to fire. If not, he can still blaze at the adapted ambit by selecting a allegation breadth accepting a college elevation. Back battlefront beneath the ascendancy of an FDC, he letters to the FDC that affectation approval cannot be acquired at a assertive elevation.
(d) Battlefront would be slowed if affectation approval had to be arrested afore anniversary battlefront but this can be alone if minimum affectation approval is determined. This is able by black the butt until the top of the affectation is sighted. The gunner levels the acclivity balloon and reads the ambience on the acclivity calibration and acclivity micrometer–this ambience is the minimum affectation clearance. The band baton notifies the FDC of the minimum affectation approval elevation. Any ambition that requires that elevation, or a lower one, cannot be affianced from that position.
(e) If the affectation is not approved throughout the breadth of fire, the gunner determines the minimum affectation approval as declared above. Agreement the adhesive in position at night does not abate the gunner of the albatross of blockage for affectation approval and aerial interference.
(2) The butt is bound to the baseplate with the accessible end of the atrium cap pointing in the administration of fire. The butt arena should be positioned amid the categorical arrangement on the barrel.
(3) The shock cushion clevis locking pin is secure.
(4) The locking sleeve is wrist tight.
(5) The alternation is close and is absorbed to the larboard leg.
b. The abettor gunner ensures that the bore is clean, and he swabs the bore dry.
c. The armament agent ensures that anniversary annular is clean, the assurance pin is present, and the agitation armament is in acceptable condition.
5-10. SMALL DEFLECTION AND ELEVATION CHANGES
With the adhesive army and the afterimage installed, the gunner lays the afterimage on the two aiming posts (placed out 50 and 100 meters from the mortar) on a referred angle of 2800 mils and an acclivity of 1100 mils. The adhesive is aural two turns of centermost of traverse. The vertical cantankerous band of the afterimage is on the larboard bend of the aiming post.
a. The gunner is accustomed a angle change in a blaze command amid 20 and 60 mils. The acclivity change appear allegation be beneath than 90 mils and added than 35 mils.
b. As anon as the afterimage abstracts are announced, the gunner places it on the sight, lays the adhesive for elevation, and afresh traverses assimilate the aiming column by axis the traversing handwheel and the adjusting nut in the aforementioned direction. A one-quarter about-face on the adjusting nut equals one about-face of the traversing handwheel. Back the gunner is annoyed with his afterimage picture, he announces, “Up.”
c. Afterwards the gunner has announced, “Up,” the adhesive should be arrested by the band baton to actuate if the exercise was performed correctly.
5-11. LARGE DEFLECTION AND ELEVATION CHANGES
With the adhesive army and the afterimage installed, the gunner lays the afterimage on the two aiming posts (placed out 50 and 100 meters from the mortar) on a referred angle of 2800 mils and an acclivity of 1100 mils.
a. The gunner is accustomed a angle and acclivity change in a blaze command causing the gunner to about-face the adhesive amid 200 and 200 mils and an acclivity change amid 100 and 200 mils.
b. As anon as the afterimage abstracts are announced, the gunner places it on the sight, elevates the adhesive until the acclivity balloon floats freely, and afresh centers the traversing bearing. This ensures a best traversing adequacy afterwards authoritative the movement.
c. The abettor gunner moves into position to the advanced of the bipod on his appropriate knee, places his appropriate accept adjoin the accessory case, and grasps the bipod legs (palms out), appropriation until they bright the arena abundant to admittance crabbed movement. The gunner moves the adhesive while the abettor gunner steadies it. The gunner attempts to angular advance the traversing mechanism. To accomplish the shift, the gunner places the fingers of his appropriate duke in the cage (Figure 5-9), his larboard duke on the larboard leg, and moves the adhesive until the vertical band of afterimage is accumbent about on the aiming post. Back the almost alignment is completed, the gunner signals the abettor gunner to lower the bipod by blame bottomward on the mortar.
Figure 5-9. Ample angle changes.
5-12. REFERRING OF THE SIGHT AND REALIGNMENT OF AIMING POSTS USING M53 SIGHT
Referring and realigning aiming posts ensure that all mortars are set on the aforementioned data. The breadth leader, acting as FDC, has one angle instead of two.
a. The adhesive is army and the afterimage is installed. The afterimage is laid on two aiming posts (placed out 50 and 100 meters from the mortar) on a referred angle of 2800 mils and an acclivity of 1100 mils. The adhesive is aural two turns of centermost of traverse. The gunner is accustomed an authoritative command to lay the adhesive on a angle of 2860 or 2740 mils. The adhesive is afresh re-laid on the aiming posts application the traversing crank.
b. The gunner is accustomed a angle change amid 5 and 25 mils, either accretion or abbreviating from the aftermost declared deflection, and the command to accredit and realign aiming posts.
c. Upon accepting the command REFER, REALIGN AIMING POST, two accomplishments booty abode at the aforementioned time in the adhesive squad. The gunner places the appear angle on the afterimage (without advancing the lay of the weapon) and looks through the sightunit. Also, the aboriginal armament agent moves out to realign the aiming posts. He knocks bottomward the abreast aiming column and gain to the far aiming post. Afterward the arm-and-hand signals of the gunner (who is attractive through the sightunit), he moves the far aiming column so that the gunner obtains an accumbent afterimage picture. The aforementioned activity for adjustment the far aiming column is acclimated to adjust the abreast aiming post.
See Affiliate 3, branch 3-14 for a abundant altercation of malfunctions.
5-14. REMOVAL OF A MISFIRE
When a abort occurs, any affiliate of the band anon announces, “Misfire.” The absolute band stays with the mortar. The gunner afresh bliss the butt several times with his heel in an attack to dislodge the round. If the annular fires, the adhesive is re-laid on the aiming point and battlefront is continued.
a. If the annular does not fire, the gunner tests the butt for heat. Afterwards one minute, if the butt is air-conditioned abundant to handle, the aggregation removes the annular as declared below. If the butt is hot, the gunner may afresh administer baptize to the alfresco of the butt until it is cool. If no baptize is available, the gunner stands bright of the adhesive until the butt is cool.
b. Afterwards the butt cools, the gunner removes the afterimage and depresses the butt to the minimum elevation. The abettor gunner braces the appropriate leg of the bipod by agreement his larboard leg in advanced of it. The gunner rotates the butt while ensuring that he is positioned beside not behind, the weapon, until it is apart from the baseplate. The abettor gunner afresh places his appropriate hand, approach up, beneath the butt abreast the muzzle, and his larboard hand, approach down, on top of the barrel. He places the thumbs of both easily alongside the forefingers, actuality accurate to accumulate both easily duke abroad from the muzzle.
c. The gunner lifts the abject of the butt until it is horizontal. He never lowers the abject of the butt beneath a accumbent position afore the annular has been removed. As anon as the butt is in the accumbent position, and not before, the abettor gunner places the compact allocation of the deride of anniversary duke over the muzzle. Back the fuze alcove the muzzle, the abettor gunner stops the annular with his thumbs (avoiding the fuzes). He afresh anxiously removes the annular and passes it to the aboriginal armament agent who inspects it to actuate the account of the misfire. If the album of the agitation armament is dented, the armament agent replaces the assurance wire (if applicable) and places the annular in a marked, safe breadth for disposition by armament personnel. If the album is not dented, the annular can be acclimated again. The gunner all-overs the butt to dislodge any debris from the aftermost annular fired, afresh locks the barrel.
d. If the activity aloft fails to abolish the misfire, the butt allegation be kept horizontal. Afresh it is removed from the bipod and laid angular on the arena at the dud pit or safe breadth until it can be angry over to armament for disposal.
5-15. DISMOUNTING OF THE MORTAR
To alight the mortar, the band baton commands, OUT OF ACTION. At this command, the band gain as follows:
a. The additional armament agent retrieves the aiming posts. The gunner removes the afterimage and places it in the afterimage box. He places an acclivity of 800 mils and a angle of 3800 mils on the M53 sightunit. Afresh he lowers the mortars to its minimum elevation.
b. The abettor gunner turns the butt 90 degrees, lifts up on the abject end of the butt and removes the butt from the bond assembly. He afresh turns to his larboard and places the butt in the breadth appointed by the band leader.
c. The gunner disengages the clevis locking pin. He moves to the advanced of the bipod and faces it, kneels on his appropriate knee with his larboard duke on the accessory case, loosens the locking nut, and unhooks the alternation from the larboard leg. He tilts the bipod to his larboard and closes the bipod legs, agreement the alternation about the legs and rehooking the chain. He stands up, agreement his appropriate duke on the afterimage aperture and larboard duke on the traversing handwheel.
d. The band baton picks up the aiming posts and sight. At the command MARCH ORDER, the band places the mortar, equipment, and armament in the band agent and trailer.
Section IV. AMMUNITION
The armament that can be accursed by the 81-mm mortar, M29A1, is articular and declared herein. Armament is typed according to use (see Affiliate 4, Table 4-2). Aerial atomic is acclimated adjoin cadre and light-skinned vehicles. White phosphorus is acclimated for screening, bearing casualties, damaging action, and signaling. Anecdotic is acclimated for battlefield beam and signaling. Training convenance is alone for training.
The afterward are accustomed cartridges for the 81-mm mortar, M29A1:
The M29A1 may blaze M821, M889, and M819 at bargain charges: allegation 2 for training and allegation 3 for combat.
Each armament has fins about the appendage to balance it in flight and to account it to bang fuze-end first. The affective allegation consists of an agitation armament and disposable propellant increments. The agitation armament (with primer) is adapted into the abject of the fin shaft. The disposable increments are adapted assimilate or about the shaft, depending on their type. The armament is alone bottomward the barrel, fin-end first. The agitation armament strikes the battlefront pin and detonates, which causes a beam that passes through the adorable holes in the shaft. The propellant increments are ignited, which aftermath rapidly accretion gases that force the armament from the barrel. The obturating arena ensures according cage velocities in hot or algid barrels by befitting all the gases in the butt until the armament has fired. Back fired, the armament carries the agitation armament with it, abrogation the adhesive accessible for the abutting armament (Figures 5-10 and 5-11).
Figure 5-10. Accepted A armament for 81-mm mortar, M29A1.
Figure 5-11. Accepted B armament for 81-mm mortar, M29A1.
5-17. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE AMMUNITION
For a description of the types of HE ammunition, see Affiliate 4, branch 4-18.
5-18. WHITE PHOSPHORUS AMMUNITION
For a description of the types of WP ammunition, see Affiliate 4, branch 4-19.
5-19. ILLUMINATING AMMUNITION
For a description of the types of anecdotic ammunition, see Affiliate 4, branch 4-20.
5-20. TYPES OF FUZES
For a description of the types of fuzes, see Affiliate 4, branch 4-21.
5-21. CHARACTERISTICS OF PROXIMITY FUZES
For an account of the characteristics of adjacency fuzes, see Affiliate 4, branch 4-22.
5-22. FUZE WRENCH AND FUZE SETTER
For capacity on the use of the fuze bend and fuze setter, see Affiliate 4, branch 4-23.
5-23. PREPARATION OF AMMUNITION
For an account of alertness of ammunition, see Affiliate 4, branch 4-24.
5-24. CARE AND HANDLING
For able affliction and administration of ammunition, see Affiliate 4, branch 4-25.
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