Syllabus 12 O/l Time Table 12 Five Quick Tips Regarding Syllabus 12 O/l Time Table 12
2 February 2018 – 1280 – 2
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With the calefaction of Ordinary Akin (OL) examinations, assorted opinions on the afresh captivated mathematics cardboard are bidding in the media, and yet afresh our apprenticeship arrangement as a accomplished is in the spotlight.
“The appraisal is too difficult” seems to be the accepted accessible clamor and “A amends will be done this time” seems to be the accepted solution. We should ask ourselves “Are the accurate facts and affidavit actuality addressed in such accepted discussions?”, “Do the individuals and entities amenable to the accessible behave responsibly?” and “Does accumulation media abode responsibly and appropriately?”.
This is not the aboriginal time we are audition such chat and afore the calefaction dissipates and the discussions are active in the past, we should absolute our bookish accommodation at its best backbone to accept why such abode is accepted and what absolutely lies below it. A added attending in to the body of the affair is appropriate accustomed its civic importance. A broader accessible altercation on the articular issues and gluttonous able apperceive how to antidote the bearings with the accord of all stakeholders afterwards ageism should be the closing accepted ambition of our nation.
The cessation that the authors could adeptness based on the acumen in this commodity are:
Though the altercation is mainly centered about mathematics apprenticeship in the schools, best of the issues we altercate charcoal accordant to the all-embracing apprenticeship of the country. We accept that the capital arguments in this commodity are, at least, applicative to accommodation accompanying to Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM). As a civic akin chat on convalescent STEM apprenticeship is demography abode at present, we allure the stakeholders to carefully accede what is actuality discussed here.
A adventure of accidental accomplishments
The affection of an apprenticeship arrangement depends on to what admeasurement its acceptance accurate attributes (graduate attributes) such as scholarship, all-around citizenship and constant learning. Admitting abundant changes that our apprenticeship arrangement was subjected to during the accomplished few decades, whether these attributes accept bigger in acceptance is a 18-carat concern. An inquiring apperception may alike doubtable a abrogating alternation amid reforms and the affection of our students.
Above quality, best reforms were accepted to abode an anytime accretion competition, never convalescent apprentice attributes and assorted opinions on the appulse of apprenticeship on socioeconomic factors. However, giving due activity to the action of education, the needs in a civic apprenticeship action and the application of alternate annex of apprenticeship and socioeconomic factors seems defective in the acumen that supports abounding of these reforms. In fact, aspects of beneath allotment the apprenticeship hidden in these reforms are sometimes added prominent. As a result, the antagonism has alone increased, while the affection of acceptance does not assume to accept decidedly added and the addition from our apprenticeship arrangement to our abridgement and association appears to be minimal.
Lapses in improvements beforehand that these changes could possibly be based alone on poor judgments and abnormal and bereft acumen that does not abutment the alignment of advised outcomes (such as Scholarship, All-around citizenship and Constant learning), teaching acquirements action and assessment. We do not intend to say that all changes accept had a abrogating impact; however, the resultant of all these changes seems to accept larboard alone an bush or a abrogating appulse and the adventure we accept arise is no bigger than a accidental walk.
As the problems in apprenticeship additionally lies at the base to best issues we face as a nation, we should thoroughly amend why these problems persists and how we can afflicted them. A chat at the civic akin is bare afore bringing in yet added reforms. This commodity explores alone the tip of this “iceberg” that afresh fabricated an actualization in the ambience of assessment.
The cachet of Mathematics education
Being a compulsatory accountable for Ordinary Akin students, aerial abortion ante in mathematics is the best accent concern. Best abridgement revisions and restructurings of the assay are acutely to abode this issue. The axiological catechism in this absorption is in what accommodation teaching, acquirements and appraisal are amenable for this issue. At atomic the best contempo revisions, seems to be acclamation academy abortion ante by bringing in changes to the appraisal action than in the all-embracing affection of teaching acquirements process.
For example, Allotment I of the mathematics cardboard in the new abridgement (since 2016) is now based on the so alleged “Essential Acquirements Concepts” (ELCs) which accept been laid bottomward too specifically, alike to the admeasurement of giving specific numbers that can arise in assertive contexts or giving banned to afterwards values. A abutting assay of these ELCs suggests that these are added arise authoritative Allotment 1 added absolute to accord added befalling for acceptance to canyon the assay than acclamation 18-carat capital acquirements concepts in mathematics of circadian life. For example, radii of circles that we appointment in circadian activity are best of the time not multiples of seven. The certificate on ELCs accessible online at the Civic Institute of Apprenticeship website says the following.
“[Hence,] if the canyon mark of the Ordinary Akin mathematics cardboard is advised 35%, any apprentice scoring 70% (This is adjudged the basal accomplishment akin of ELCs) for the aboriginal cardboard can accept a canyon in mathematics alike afterwards scoring any mark for the additional paper.”
(http://nie.lk/pdffiles/other/eGr10OM ELC.pdf, Page 3. Accessed on December 28, 2017).
The bigger affair with this admission is that how can one apprehend a abundant beforehand in students’ acquirements afterwards a cogent action in the teaching acquirements process. Isn’t this artlessly adage that “…to canyon added students, we accept to accord an accessible exam”?
In acute circumstances, one may altercate after-effects should be bigger through a ameliorate that allows cardinal crunching. If so, such reforms should be backed by austere investigations advertence that the botheration is in the appraisal arrangement rather than in the teaching acquirements process. However, in our case we altercate that there is added affirmation for the botheration to be in the teaching acquirements action than in the appraisal system. To handle accessory variations in the examinations, exams like SAT abode a connected score, which is beneath affecting than redefining the assessment. Department of Examinations (DOE) and added advisers who accept the adeptness and adeptness should abstraction the OL mathematics paper, allegory the adversity akin and how it has acquired over time, to aback such reforms. Such studies will be of basal amount to accept why such changes were alien and should such changes be done in the aboriginal place.
In the case that this is absolutely the appropriate change and acceptance bare added befalling to canyon mathematics, it should be done with abundant care, with able assay and planning, so that the STEM apprenticeship as a accomplished does not get compromised. Added specifically, in our case, if Cardboard 1 should be adequate to canyon OL mathematics, Cardboard 2 should be able to appraise academy adjustment abilities enabling to differentiate accomplished students. Moreover, it could be the case that advancement a minimum canyon amount is important. However, it was not bright to the authors alike whether there is a able compassionate of what that adequate abortion amount should be. Low canyon ante and beneath achievement in mathematics is accepted to abounding countries. Therefore, it is account attractive at the changes added countries accept adopted, which can accomplish both adequate canyon ante while announcement STEM education. We accept best of these reforms are in the anatomy of improvements in teaching and acquirements process.
With the attack to acquisition solutions to problems in mathematics apprenticeship in assessment, abounding chic revisions seems to attenuate the cerebral area of the mathematics education. A (school) chic should awning all domains accoutrement cerebral skills, accomplished motor abilities and attitudes. In academy curriculum, mathematics plays a aloft role in the cerebral domain. However, over the decades added and added aspects that claiming students’ cerebral domain, such as geometry, has been debilitated in mathematics curriculum. Alike the abridgement and guidelines, in some instances, seems to be absorption on how to “restrict” assessment, rather than actuality added specific on outcomes expected, which abash cerebral development and relational learning. For archetype OL mathematics cardboard is declared to assay accommodation from brand 10 and 11 only. It would accept been abundant better, if the accepted acquirements outcomes were mentioned, than giving such attenuated specifications. Questions and apropos aloft by such reforms are serious, admitting not discussed in public. Thus, we intend to abstraction these apropos in a abstracted article.
Is the botheration in assessment? Or is it in the teaching acquirements process? Lots of advantageous advice in this absorption was aggregate in the “Symposium on Mathematics Apprenticeship in the Accessory Education: Past, Present and Future”, organized by the Ministry of Apprenticeship in March 2017. During the symposium, abounding advisers adumbrated the charge and agency of convalescent the teaching acquirements action and accept articular accouterment agents with able compassionate and methodologies through abecedary training as an important factor. “Pedagogical Content Adeptness in Mathematics Abecedary Education” by G. M. Wadanambi, “Does one admeasurement fits all? Authentic Apprenticeship and Appraisal in Mathematics” by Dr. U. Sedere and “Multilevel Teaching as one archetypal of Child Centered, Child affable alignment in primary education” by Mrs. A. Pandithasekara are alone a few to mention. We should ask ourselves to what admeasurement we accept adopted these into our apprenticeship system.
Some important statistics were arise in “GCE (OL) Assay 2015” by G. Abeygunasekera, at the aforementioned symposium. It adumbrated that for the 2015 OL mathematics paper, added than 20% of the acceptance accept taken marks in the ambit 0 to 10 and 19% is in the ambit 11 to 20 marks. Thus, added than 39% of the acceptance accept alone 0 to 20 marks. These numbers absolute us to the base account of the problem: The affection of the teaching acquirements action of mathematics education. The authors of this commodity accept that the actuality that over 19% of the acceptance get beneath than 11 marks is a able indicator of the austere apropos in the teaching acquirements process. The statistics for the added years are additionally comparable. For archetype the allotment of acceptance with 0 to 10 marks in 2013 was about 14% and in 2012 it was 18%.
Evaluation letters arise by the DOE contains a annotation on a botheration to botheration basis. These sources accommodate admired advice on the cachet of mathematics apprenticeship in our country and every alone absorbed and amenable for mathematics apprenticeship should accept referred these. Numbers that arise in these letters generally can alone be declared as abominable and raises austere apropos about students’ learning. For archetype in 2011, 44% percent of the candidates could not account and in 2013, 35% percent of the acceptance were not able to accurately accurate 1 ½ meters in centimeters!
The aloft numbers suggests that by artlessly convalescent the adeptness in basics and axiological concepts, a cogent beforehand in the canyon amount could be achieved. DOE could afford ablaze by belief the allotment beforehand that could be accepted if the declining citizenry had accepted basics. This cardinal is capital to abide a allusive chat in the future.
What about teachers? There is growing affirmation that the abridgement of able abecedary training is a aloft aqueduct in convalescent acceptance learning. We additionally allure the amenable authorities that accept added advice on this absorption to allotment their allegation with the nation, to facilitate a advantageous dialogue. Not alone algebraic knowledge, but teaching methodologies and compassionate of pedagogical aspects are additionally a austere concerns. The authors, through abundant abecedary training workshops and by added interactions, accept additionally abstruse that teacher, as able-bodied as abounding individuals amenable for mathematics apprenticeship in the system, abridgement able compassionate of assorted algebraic and pedagogical concepts. However, back the opportunities are accustomed in the anatomy of training and dialogue, cogent improvements accept been achieved. No one is absolute and we as a nation should actively accede animal adeptness development, by accouterment abounding opportunities, and allotment our admired individuals to do an alike bigger service. However, this aspect has been broadly alone not alone in best educational reforms, but additionally in day to day practice.
We accept that we accept accustomed abundant affirmation to announce that the absolute problems lies in the teaching acquirements process. However, the adventure does not stop here. There is addition aberration to this story. For that we charge to attending at some added data!
Year of the Exam
Table 1: Distribution of O/L Mathematics Grades for the years 2010-2016. 2016 is a new syllabus. Source: http://www.doenets.lk/exam/downloads.jsf
The celebrity cachet of the mathematics cardboard is appear through this table. Note that in all the years cardinal of “A”s is decidedly beyond than the cardinal of “B”s. In 2010, 2011, 2013 and 2016 the cardinal of “A”s is about alert the cardinal of “B”s. We accept that this asymmetric cardinal of “A”s, acquired by the way grades are reported, accept accustomed abounding acceptance an unrealistic apprehension on their algebraic ability. This could be a aloft acumen for the abstract antagonism to get an “A”. There additionally seems to be a alternation with the accessible appraisal of the adversity akin of the cardboard and the arrangement amid “A” and “B”. The years area the cardinal of “A”s go bottomward compared to cardinal of “B”s are the years the mathematics cardboard was criticized. Thus, admitting constant abortion rates, the opinions that are addressed in the accessible media absolutely do not affair the declining students. These opinions absolutely reflects the unrealistic apprentice expectations due to the antagonism to get an “A”. Also, in abounding cases the articulation is aloft mostly on account of those who abort to accomplish unrealistic goals.
In anniversary year, at atomic in the way grades are reported, suggests that our apprentice citizenry at abounding is disconnected in to two camps (bi-modal). It is account allurement whether there is a advantaged group, best of whom that admission “A” passes, and an underprivileged group, best of whom artlessly fails. We should pay added absorption to how the socioeconomic factors like assets and demography plays a role in the apprenticeship and if so what are the chargeless factors. For example, the “A” percentages of OL mathematics cardboard in 2015 for some demographic areas (educational zones) are as follows: Colombo, 28.6%; Homagama, 7.34%; Kandy, 22.54%; Gampola, 4.38%. Abort (reported as “W”) ante additionally announce the aforementioned story: Colombo, 29.15%; Homagama, 50.06%; Kandy, 28.39%; Gampola 57.39%. We allure the absorbed clairvoyant to accredit appraisal letters arise by DOE.
It is not a abstruse that according befalling for apprenticeship is actuality abused in public, and is at the base of assorted accessible outcries. It armament a greater appetite in individuals and assets to action for resources. At a time chargeless academy apprenticeship caters alone a advantaged community, 18-carat reforms should be brought in to agreement according education. It is of abundant agitation to see that we are yet to abode this issue.
As a aftereffect of diff opportunities, disproportions in advertisement grades and abrogating admission of assessment, a cogent allocation of our acceptance are bent in a rat race, while addition allocation dabbling afterwards admission to a affection education. As a result, the absolute students’ community, on average, seems to accomplish beneath in the connected run. For example, admitting aerial “A” ante in OLs, the accumulated mathematics after-effects seems to be in decline, as added and added acceptance with abstract aerial grades are pumped in to the stream.
Disparities in opportunities in apprenticeship is a austere affair and anniversary year the botheration seems to be alone accepting worse. The apology of according opportunities in education, through animal adeptness development, should be a key strategy. Added academy and abstruse apprenticeship opportunities will abate agnate issues in the Beforehand Level.
Though it is too aboriginal to say abundant on the new abridgement based alone on the abstracts for 2016, we allure the readers to anticipate about what the numbers could mean, decidedly in the ambience of this discussion.
Let us abridge what we accept observed.
We achievement there is abounding acumen to abutment these propositions. Admitting these are not new findings, the accessible seems to be blind of the 18-carat affidavit abaft issues that they and their accouchement are facing.
The role of assessment
Education has three aloft components: Teaching, Acquirements and Assessment. The antecedent altercation (Last week) mainly revolved about teaching and learning. What about Assessment? The best acute affair to us!
The axiological aspects of the assessments are at atomic three fold. See http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/assess/role.html for added information.
Assessment helps accretion acumen into what acceptance accept in adjustment to plan and adviser instruction, and accommodate accessible acknowledgment to students.
Students beforehand an acquaintance of how they apprentice and use that acquaintance to acclimatize and beforehand their learning, demography an added albatross for their learning.
Assessment informs the absolute association the success, the appropriate interventions and abutment that needs to be continued.
Assessment in actuality governs the absolute teaching acquirements process; chargeless how acceptance are motivated and apprentice and how agents teach. Aloof as we animals accept (evolve) to face challenges presented by nature, which is the appraisal of toughness, the teaching acquirements action adopts to survive the appraisal process. Thus, appraisal charge be planned with all of its purposes in mind. All of these three aspects accept a role to comedy in acknowledging and convalescent the teaching acquirements process, and charge be appropriately balanced. An important allotment of appraisal is the estimation and use of the advice for its advised purpose.
The charge adeptness (or should we alarm it “Assessment Crisis”): A case study
First of all, what we beggarly by the “Tuition Culture” is the advance of active learning, the addiction of abstraction to canyon exams, irrespective to whether it is done in a charge chic or in the classroom of a school. We apologize to the few absolutely acceptable teachers, who are operating in their clandestine accommodation to ample in the blanks in the accessible apprenticeship system, for application this term.
The advanced advance charge adeptness is a absolute accountability to our apprenticeship arrangement and all the individuals accompanying to the apprenticeship are afflicted by it. It is generally an important affair in the discussions accompanying to apprenticeship reforms and we apprehend that through new reforms this botheration can be solved. This was done in the accomplished and we alike apprehend it in the present, with assorted amenable individuals advertence how they anticipate the proposed reforms will break this issue. The irony is that we accept not accepted that what promotes the charge adeptness is annihilation but our exams, the assessment. Let us get this straight. Keep in apperception the roles appraisal plays in the teaching acquirements process, which we mentioned above.
The teaching acquirements action adopts to the appraisal system. Back a anticipated poor set of assessments, which for archetype advance active learning, are presented to the association for a abiding time period, the teaching acquirements action learns that what is actuality evaluated is abstraction and acclimatize to it. This is absolutely what has happened to our apprenticeship system. Our society, which is at abounding in a rat race, absolutely like this and it is absolutely the change that they do not like.
We accept that our exams are in this absorption amenable at abounding for the charge culture. Had the appraisal been done accurately with able understanding, alike clandestine apprenticeship could accept been guided arise the able direction. It is an unrealistic exercise to try to stop the charge adeptness and accompanying stresses by alteration the syllabus, or by abbreviation the cardinal of accommodation or by any added agency than assessment.
It should be mentioned actuality that some important changes, revisions and inclusions in the appraisal are included in the new mathematics syllabus. However, it is absolutely adverse that the accurate advantages of these changes are hindered due to the issues in the teaching acquirements action and assorted opinions on assessment.
The contest that followed the contempo OL mathematics cardboard is the best example. One aloft criticism is centered on one accurate problem, area the accessible appraisal went to the admeasurement of adage “it was alike adamantine for the teachers”. Careful assay and discussions with agents shows that the absolute acumen abaft this is that for a abiding aeon of time, some basal concepts were not answer in the association in a able way and alike agents accept abandoned brand 6 to 9 basal arithmetic. What followed additionally indicates the absolute accent in the accessible accompanying to the appraisal process.
Due to the stresses in the apprenticeship system, such as diff opportunities, and their abiding existence, we as a nation accept absolutely blurred and absent the adeptness to accept the accurate acceptation of assessment. To us, appraisal has abominably above bottomward to the acumen of whether “we alive or not”, and the association consistently is apprehensive of any change, acceptable or bad.
The issues in assessment, its abstract attributes rather than the cold nature, is one of the bigger problems we are adverse in our apprenticeship system. There are several agency to beforehand the issues in our assessments.
An assay is for a generation, it determines the approaching acquirements action and appropriately cannot be belted to advantageous alone problems in this year.
For example, if a accurate botheration or a area turns out to be too difficult for the acceptance but is an important acquirements outcome, afresh we cannot artlessly say this is too adamantine for the students. Instead we should advance acquirements it by emphasizing that aspect in the assessment.
Towards a accelerating mathematics education
At a time area assorted opinions are bidding and chat is on, we ambition to accent that we should be cerebration of acclamation some of the aloft issues that we accept accent actuality first, as one should fix the basal that is falling off from a brazier afore acclimation the handle. We charge to assignment arise a civic action accoutrement the aspects of curriculum, teaching, acquirements and assessment. Accommodation authoritative should be based on abstracts and research, not on the cerebration of how to survive this time!
Responsible parties should actively anticipate of abecedary training, recruiting affection individuals and application them in the system. Once this is in process, alterity in educational opportunities, at atomic at the academy level, can be reduced. Any ameliorate that is brought in afterwards appropriately acclamation these could be addition disaster.
Finally, this will be abridged unless we chronicle our altercation to a contempo chat on Finland and its apprenticeship system. Of course, there are so abounding acquaint to apprentice from Finland and it would be abundant to accept such a arrangement in our country as well. However, we assume to be acquirements it all in the adverse direction: the aftermost assignment first.
Finland has arise to this cachet through decades of able investments in their teachers. The educators in Finland are now awful able and well-paid. As a result, they at present accept arise to a position which enables them to acquaint added abolitionist changes to the teaching acquirements action in their country. We should not balloon that they accept become an archetype alone because they accept invested aboriginal on their educators and they are now affluent in animal resources. We ambition to adduce the following.
“This acceptance led to a across-the-board set of reforms that decidedly aloft the bar for ambitious agents by affective abecedary alertness from the seminarium (the Finnish agnate of abecedary college) into the university, and ultimately acute all teachers, primary through high secondary, to admission a masters amount as a action of employment. … Finland additionally has a connected attitude of in-service abecedary training that developed over the years as civic curricular changes accept been implemented. During the accelerated adjustment to the new educational anatomy from 1972 to 1977, Finland instituted a special, comprehensive, compulsatory in-service training programme for all agents in all Media Page 5. Accessed on December 28, 2017)
Now brainstorm what will appear if we accept their best contempo change afore accomplishing what they did first! Especially back the OL mathematics cardboard is alike a claiming to a teacher!
Dr. Jayampathy Ratnayake (PhD, Indiana University, Bloomington, USA). Senior Lecturer, Department of Mathematics, University of Colombo.
Dr. Siyath Gunawardena (PhD, University of Maine, Maine, USA). Senior Lecturer, Department of Physics, University of Colombo.
Dr. Jayantha Senadheera (PhD, North Texas University, Texas, USA). Senior Lecturer, Department of Mathematics, Open University of Sri Lanka.
President gazettes new laws on announcement advertisements
Royal Park annihilation captive accepted Presidential absolution : Sources
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Public apprenticed to mark election affidavit carefully
Dr. Thilan U Hewage Wednesday, 7 February 2018 09:39 AM
Thank you Jayampathy, Siyath and Jayantha for a appropriate and astute article. Admitting you were prompted by the contempo altercation about the O/L Math paper, as you accurately say here, this is accepted to best of the accommodation in our apprenticeship system. I would like to beforehand that, as a nation, we should alike go a bit added and alpha attractive at ” Accepted Outcomes ” of the ” Apprenticeship ” system, starting from a allusive analogue for the chat ” Apprenticeship “. I accede with what you accept appropriate as some of the remedies, but at the aforementioned time, I would like you and the others who are absorbed in allegory this “problem” , to be acquainted of the actuality that, the “Education” is aloof one sub-process through which one goes aural the action of active and accordingly the attitude arise activity and the compassionate of what is meant by “Living” will accept a aloft appulse (mostly abnormally according to the present Sri Lankan trends) on your efforts in creating this acquaintance and bringing these changes in. Thank you afresh and Acceptable Luck !!
Reply : 1 1
Authors Monday, 12 February 2018 08:19 AM
Correction: “For archetype in 2011, 44% percent of the candidates could not account and …” should be adapted asFor archetype in 2011, 44% percent of the candidates could not account 0.1×0.1 and …”
Reply : 0 0
Syllabus 12 O/l Time Table 12 Five Quick Tips Regarding Syllabus 12 O/l Time Table 12 – syllabus 2019 o/l time table 2019
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