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1.1 Introduction to apparent area1.2 Apparent areas of aqueduct cross-sections and farms1.3 Introduction to volume1.4 Introduction to flow-rate1.5 Introduction to allotment and per mil1.6 Introduction to graphs1.7 Test your knowledge
1.1.1 Triangles1.1.2 Squares and Rectangles1.1.3 Rhombuses and Parallelograms1.1.4 Trapeziums1.1.5 Circles1.1.6 Metric Conversions
It is important to be able to admeasurement and account apparent areas. It ability be all-important to calculate, for example, the apparent breadth of the array of a aqueduct or the apparent breadth of a farm.
This Section will altercate the adding of some of the best accepted apparent areas: the triangle, the square, the rectangle, the rhombus, the parallelogram, the trapezium and the amphitheater (see Fig. 1a).
Fig. 1a. The best accepted apparent areas
The acme (h) of a triangle, a rhombus, a parallelogram or a trapezium, is the ambit from a top bend to the adverse ancillary alleged abject (b). The acme is consistently erect to the base; in added words, the acme makes a “right angle” with the base. An archetype of a appropriate bend is the bend of this page.
In the case of a aboveboard or a rectangle, the announcement breadth (1) is frequently acclimated instead of abject and amplitude (w) instead of height. In the case of a amphitheater the announcement diametre (d) is acclimated (see Fig. 1b).
Fig. 1b. The acme (h), abject (b), amplitude (w), breadth (1) and diametre (d) of the best accepted apparent areas
The apparent breadth or apparent (A) of a triangle is affected by the formula:
A (triangle) = 0.5 x abject x acme = 0.5 x b x h ….. (1)
Triangles can acquire abounding shapes (see Fig. 2) but the aforementioned blueprint is acclimated for all of them.
Fig. 2. Some examples of triangles
Calculate the apparent breadth of the triangles no. 1, no. 1a and no. 2
Triangles no. 1 and no. 1a:
base = 3 cmheight = 2 cm
A = 0.5 x abject x height= 0.5 x 3 cm x 2 cm = 3 cm2
Triangle no. 2:
base = 3 cmheight = 2 cm
A = 0.5 x 3 cm x 2 cm = 3 cm2
It can be apparent that triangles no. 1, no. 1a and no. 2 acquire the aforementioned surface; the shapes of the triangles are different, but the abject and the acme are in all three cases the same, so the apparent is the same.
The apparent of these triangles is bidding in aboveboard centimetres (written as cm2). Apparent areas can additionally be bidding in aboveboard decimetres (dm2), aboveboard metres (m2), etc…
Calculate the apparent areas of the triangles nos. 3, 4, 5 and 6.
Triangle no. 3:
base = 3 cmheight = 2 cm
A = 0.5 x abject x height= 0.5 x 3 cm x 2 cm = 3 cm2
Triangle no. 4:
base = 4 cmheight = 1 cm
A = 0.5 x 4 cm x 1 cm = 2 cm2
Triangle no. 5:
base = 2 cmheight = 3 cm
A = 0.5 x 2 cm x 3 cm = 3 cm2
Triangle no. 6:
base = 4 cmheight = 3 cm
A = 0.5 x 4 cm x 3 cm = 6 cm2
The apparent breadth or apparent (A) of a aboveboard or a rectangle is affected by the formula:
A (square or rectangle) = breadth x amplitude = l x w ….. (2)
In a aboveboard the lengths of all four abandon are according and all four angles are appropriate angles.
In a rectangle, the lengths of the adverse abandon are according and all four angles are appropriate angles.
Fig. 3. A aboveboard and a rectangle
Note that in a aboveboard the breadth and amplitude are according and that in a rectangle the breadth and amplitude are not according (see Fig. 3).
Calculate the apparent areas of the rectangle and of the aboveboard (see Fig. 3).
length = 2 cmwidth = 2 cm
A = breadth x width= 2 cm x 2 cm = 4 cm2
length = 5 cmwidth = 3 cm
A = breadth x width= 5 cm x 3 cm = 15 cm2
Related to irrigation, you will generally appear beyond the announcement hectare (ha), which is a apparent breadth unit. By definition, 1 hectare equals 10 000 m2. For example, a acreage with a breadth of 100 m and a amplitude of 100 m2 (see Fig. 4) has a apparent breadth of 100 m x 100 m = 10 000 m2 = 1 ha.
Fig. 4. One hectare equals 10 000 m2
The apparent breadth or apparent (A) of a rhombus or a parallelogram is affected by the formula:
A (rhombus or parallelogram) = abject x acme = b x h ….. (3)
In a rhombus the lengths of all four abandon are equal; none of the angles are appropriate angles; adverse abandon run parallel.
In a parallelogram the lengths of the adverse abandon are equal; none of the angles are appropriate angles; adverse abandon run alongside (see Fig. 5).
Fig. 5. A rhombus and a parallelogram
Calculate the apparent areas of the rhombus and the parallelogram (see Fig. 5).
base = 3 cmheight = 2 cm
A = abject x height= 3 cm x 2 cm = 6 cm2
base = 3.5 cmheight = 3 cm
A = abject x height= 3.5 cm x 3 cm = 10.5 cm2
The apparent breadth or apparent (A) of a trapezium is affected by the formula:
A (trapezium) = 0.5 (base top) x acme = 0.5 (b a) x h ….. (4)
The top (a) is the ancillary adverse and alongside to the abject (b). In a trapezium alone the abject and the top run parallel.
Some examples are apparent in Fig. 6:
Fig. 6. Some examples of trapeziums
Calculate the apparent breadth of trapezium no. 1.
Trapezium no. 1:
base = 4 cmtop = 2 cmheight = 2 cm
A = 0.5 x (base x top) x height= 0.5 x (4 cm 2 cm) x 2 cm= 0.5 x 6 cm x 2 cm = 6 cm2
Calculate the apparent areas trapeziums nos. 2, 3 and 4.
Trapezium no. 2:
base = 5 cmtop = 1 cmheight = 2 cm
A = 0.5 x (base top) x height= 0.5 x (5 cm 1 cm) x 2 cm= 0.5 x 6 cm x 2 cm = 6 cm2
Trapezium no. 3:
base = 3 cmtop = 1 cmheight = 1 cm
A = 0.5 x (3 cm 1 cm) x 2 cm= 0.5 x 4 cm x 2 cm = 4 cm2
Trapezium no. 4:
base = 2 cmtop = 4 cmheight = 2 cm
A = 0.5 x (2 cm 4 cm) x 2 cm= 0.5 x 6 cm x 2 cm = 6 cm2
Note that the apparent areas of the trapeziums 1 and 4 are equal. Cardinal 4 is the aforementioned as cardinal 1 but upside down.
Another adjustment to account the apparent breadth of a trapezium is to bisect the trapezium into a rectangle and two triangles, to admeasurement their abandon and to actuate alone the apparent areas of the rectangle and the two triangles (see Fig. 7).
Fig. 7. Splitting a trapezium into one rectangle and two triangles. Agenda that A = A1 A2 A3 = 1 6 2 = 9 cm2
The apparent breadth or apparent (A) of a amphitheater is affected by the formula:
A (circle) = 1/4 (p x d x d) = 1/4 (p x d2) = 1/4 (3.14 x d2) ….. (5)
whereby d is the bore of the amphitheater and p (a Greek letter, arresting Pi) a connected (p = 3.14). A bore (d) is a beeline band which divides the amphitheater in two according parts.
Fig. 8. A circle
Circle: d = 4.5 cm
A = 1/4 (p x d²) = 1/4 (3.14 x d x d)= 1/4 (3.14 x 4.5 cm x 4.5 cm)= 15.9 cm2
Calculate the apparent breadth of a amphitheater with a bore of 3 m.
Circle: d = 3 m
A = 1/4 (p x d²) = 1/4 (3.14 x d x d) = 1/4 (3.14 x 3 m x 3 m) = 7.07 m2
i. Units of length
The basal assemblage of breadth in the metric arrangement is the accent (m). One accent can be disconnected into 10 decimetres (dm), 100 centimetres (cm) or 1000 millimetres (mm); 100 m equals to 1 hectometre (hm); while 1000 m is 1 kilometre (km).
1 km = 10 hm = 1000 m0.1 km = 1 hm = 100 m0.01 km = 0.1 hm = 10 m0.001 km = 0.01 hm = 1 m
ii. Units of surface
The basal assemblage of breadth in the metric arrangement is the aboveboard accent (m), which is acquired by adding a breadth of 1 accent by a amplitude of 1 accent (see Fig. 9).
Fig. 9. A aboveboard metre
1 km2 = 100 ha2 = 1 000 000 m20.01 km2 = 1 ha2 = 10 000 m20.000001 km2 = 0.0001 ha2 = 1 m2
1 ha = 100 m x 100 m = 10 000 m2
1.2.1 Determination of the apparent areas of aqueduct cross-sections1.2.2 Determination of the apparent breadth of a farm
This Section explains how to administer the apparent breadth formulas to two accepted applied problems that will generally be met in the field.
The best accepted appearance of a aqueduct array is a trapezium or, added truly, an “up-side-down” trapezium (see Fig. 10).
Fig. 10. Aqueduct cross-section
The breadth (A B C D), hatched on the aloft drawing, is alleged the aqueduct array and has a trapezium appearance (compare with trapezium no. 4). Thus, the blueprint to account its apparent is agnate to the blueprint acclimated to account the apparent breadth of a trapezium (formula 4):
Surface breadth of the aqueduct array = 0.5 (base top line) x aqueduct abyss = 0.5 (b a) x h ….. (6)
top band (a) = top amplitude of the canal
canal abyss (h) = acme of the aqueduct (from the basal of the aqueduct to the top of the embankment)
Suppose that the aqueduct contains water, as apparent in Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Wetted array of a canal
The breadth (A B C D), hatched on the aloft drawing, is alleged the wetted aqueduct array or wetted cross-section. It additionally has a trapezium appearance and the blueprint to account its apparent breadth is:
Surface breadth of the wetted aqueduct array = 0.5 (base top line) x baptize abyss = 0.5 (b a1) x h1 ….. (7)
top band (a1) = top amplitude of the baptize level
water abyss (h1) = the acme or abyss of the baptize in the aqueduct (from the basal of the aqueduct to the baptize level).
Calculate the apparent breadth of the array and the wetted cross-section, of the aqueduct apparent in Fig. 12 below.
Fig. 12. Dimensions of the cross-section
base (b) = 1.25 mtop band (a) = 3.75 mcanal abyss (h) = 1.25 m
A = 0.5 x (b a) x h= 0.5 x (1.25 m 3.75 m) x 1.25 m= 3.125 m2
Canal wetted cross-section:
base (b) = 1.25 mtop band (a1) = 3.25 mwater abyss (h1) = 1.00 m
A = 0.5 x (b a1) x h= 0.5 x (1.25 m 3.25 m) x 1.00 m= 2.25 m2
It may be all-important to actuate the apparent breadth of a farmer’s field. For example, back artful how abundant irrigation baptize should be accustomed to a assertive field, the admeasurement of the acreage charge be known.
When the appearance of the acreage is approved and has, for example, a ellipsoidal shape, it should not be too difficult to account the apparent breadth already the breadth of the acreage (that is the abject of its approved shape) and the amplitude of the acreage acquire been abstinent (see Fig. 13).
Fig. 13. Acreage of approved shape
Length of the acreage = 50 mWidth of the acreage = 30 m
A = breadth x amplitude (formula 2)= 50 m x 30 m = 1500 m2
What is the breadth of the aforementioned field, bidding in hectares?
Section 1.1.2 explained that a hectare is according to 10 000 m. Thus, the blueprint to account a apparent breadth in hectares is:
In this case: breadth of the acreage in
More often, however, the acreage appearance is not regular, as apparent in Fig. 14a.
Fig. 14a. Acreage of aberrant shape
In this case, the acreage should be disconnected in several approved areas (square, rectangle, triangle, etc.), as has been done in Fig. 14b.
Fig. 14b. Division of aberrant acreage into approved areas
Surface breadth of the square: As = breadth x amplitude = 30 m x 30 m = 900 m2Surface breadth of the rectangle: Ar = breadth x amplitude = 50 m x 15 m = 750 m2Surface breadth of the triangle: At = 0.5 x abject x acme = 0.5 x 20 m x 30 m = 300 m2Total apparent breadth of the field: A = As Ar At = 900 m2 750 m2 300 m2 = 1950 m2
1.3.1 Units of volume1.3.2 Aggregate of baptize on a field
A aggregate (V) is the agreeable of a anatomy or object. Booty for archetype a block (Fig 15). A block has a assertive breadth (l), amplitude (w) and acme (h). With these three data, the aggregate of the block can be affected application the formula:
V (block) = breadth x amplitude x acme = l x w x h ….. (9)
Fig. 15. A block
Calculate the aggregate of the aloft block.
length = 4 cmwidth = 3 cmheight = 2 cm
V = breadth x amplitude x height= 4 cm x 3 cm x 2 cm= 24 cm3
The aggregate of this block is bidding in cubic centimetres (written as cm). Volumes can additionally be bidding in cubic decimetres (dm3), cubic metres (m3), etc.
Calculate the aggregate in m3 of a block with a breadth of 4 m, a amplitude of 50 cm and a acme of 200 mm.
All abstracts charge be adapted in metres (m)
length = 4 mwidth = 50 cm = 0.50 mheight = 200 mm = 0.20 m
V = breadth x amplitude x height= 4 m x 0.50 m x 0.20 m= 0.40 m3
Calculate the aggregate of the aforementioned block, this time in cubic centimetres (cm3)
All abstracts charge be adapted in centimetres (cm)
length = 4 m = 400 cmwidth = 50 cmheight = 200 mm = 20 cm
V = breadth x amplitude x height= 400 cm x 50 cm x 20 cm= 400 000 cm3
Of course, the aftereffect is the same: 0.4 m3 = 400 000 cm3
The basal assemblage of aggregate in the metric arrangement is the cubic accent (m3) which is acquired by adding a breadth of 1 metre, by a amplitude of 1 accent and a acme of 1 accent (see Fig. 16).
Fig. 16. One cubic metre
Suppose a one-litre canteen is abounding with water. The aggregate of the baptize is appropriately 1 litre or 1 dm3. Back the canteen of baptize is emptied on a table, the baptize will advance out over the table and anatomy a attenuate baptize layer. The bulk of baptize on the table is the aforementioned as the bulk of baptize that was in the bottle; actuality 1 litre.
The aggregate of baptize charcoal the same; alone the appearance of the “water body” changes (see Fig. 17).
Fig. 17. One litre of baptize advance over a table
A agnate action happens if you advance irrigation baptize from a accumulator backlog over a farmer’s field.
Suppose there is a reservoir, abounding with water, with a breadth of 5 m, a amplitude of 10 m and a abyss of 2 m. All the baptize from the backlog is advance over a acreage of 1 hectare. Account the baptize abyss (which is the array of the baptize layer) on the field, see Fig. 18.
Fig. 18. A aggregate of 100 m3 of baptize advance over an breadth of one hectare
The blueprint to use is:
As the aboriginal step, the aggregate of baptize charge be calculated. It is the aggregate of the abounding reservoir, affected with blueprint (9):
As the additional step, the array of the baptize band is affected application blueprint (10):
Surface of the acreage = 10 000 m2 Aggregate of baptize = 100 m3
A baptize band 1 mm blubbery is advance over a acreage of 1 ha. Account the aggregate of the baptize (in m3), with the advice of Fig. 19.
Fig. 19. One millimetre baptize abyss on a acreage of one hectare
The blueprint to use is:
Volume of baptize (V) = Apparent of the acreage (A) x Baptize abyss (d) ….. (11)
Surface of the acreage = 10 000 m2Water abyss = 1 mm =1/1 000 = 0.001 m
Formula: Aggregate (m³)
= apparent of the acreage (m²) x baptize abyss (m) V = 10 000 m2 x 0.001 mV = 10 m3 or 10 000 litres
1.4.1 Definition1.4.2 Adding and Units
The flow-rate of a river, or of a canal, is the aggregate of baptize absolved through this river, or this canal, during a accustomed aeon of time. Related to irrigation, the aggregate of baptize is usually bidding in litres (l) or cubic metres (m3) and the time in abnormal (s) or hours (h). The flow-rate is additionally alleged discharge-rate.
The baptize active out of a tap fills a one litre canteen in one second. Appropriately the breeze amount (Q) is one litre per additional (1 l/s) (see Fig. 20).
Fig. 20. A flow-rate of one litre per second
The baptize supplied by a pump fills a boom of 200 litres in 20 seconds. What is the breeze amount of this pump?
The blueprint acclimated is:
Volume of water: 200 lTime: 20 s
The assemblage “litre per second” is frequently acclimated for baby flows, e.g. a tap or a baby ditch. For beyond flows, e.g. a river or a capital canal, the assemblage “cubic accent per second” (m3/s) is added calmly used.
A river discharges 100 m3 of baptize to the sea every 2 seconds. What is the flow-rate of this river bidding in m3/s?
The blueprint acclimated is:
Volume of water: 100 m3Time: 2 s
The acquittal amount of a pump is generally bidding in m3 per hour (m3/h) or in litres per minute (l/min).
NOTE: Blueprint 12a, 12b, 12c and 12d are the same; alone the units change
1.5.1 Percentage1.5.2 Per mil
In affiliation to agriculture, the words allotment and per mil will be met regularly. For instance “60 percent of the absolute breadth is anhydrous during the dry season”. In this Section the acceptation of the words “percentage” and “per mil” will be discussed.
The chat “percentage” agency actually “per hundred”; in added words one percent is the one hundredth allotment of the total. You can either address percent, or %, or 1/100, or 0.01.
Some examples are:
How abounding oranges are 1% of a absolute of 300 oranges? (see Fig. 21)
Fig. 21. Three oranges are 1% of 300 oranges
1% of 300 oranges = 1/100 x 300 = 3 oranges
6% of 100 cows
6/100 x 100 = 6 cows
15% of 28 hectares
15/100 x 28 = 4.2 ha
80% of 90 irrigation projects
80/100 x 90 = 72 projects
150% of a account bacon of $100
150/100 x 100 = 1.5 x 100 = $150
0.5% of 194.5 litres
0.5/100 x 194.5 = 0.005 x 194.5 = 0.9725 litres
The chat “per mil” agency actually “per thousand”; in added words one per mil is one thousandth allotment of the total.
You can either write: per mil, or , or 1/1000, or 0.001.
Some examples are:
How abounding oranges are 4 of 1000 oranges? (see Fig. 22)
Fig. 22. Four oranges are 4 of 1000 oranges
4 of 1000 oranges = 4/1000 x 1000 = 4 oranges
because 10 = 10/1000 = 1/10 = 1%
3 of 3 000 oranges
3/1000 x 3 000 = 9 oranges
35 of 10 000 ha
35/1000 x 10 000 = 350 ha
0.5 of 750 km2
0.5/1000 x 750 =0.375 km2
1.6.1 Archetype 11.6.2 Archetype 2
A blueprint is a cartoon in which the accord amid two (or more) items of advice (e.g. time and bulb growth) is apparent in a allegorical way.
To this end, two ambit are fatigued at a appropriate angle. The accumbent one is alleged the x arbor and the vertical one is alleged the y axis.
Where the x arbor and the y arbor bisect is the “0” (zero) point (see Fig. 23).
The acute of the advice on the blueprint is discussed in the afterward examples.
Fig. 23. A graph
Suppose it is all-important to accomplish a blueprint of the advance amount of a maize plant. Each anniversary the acme of the bulb is measured. One anniversary afterwards burying the seed, the bulb measures 2 cm in height, two weeks afterwards burying it measures 5 cm and 3 weeks afterwards burying the acme is 10 cm, as illustrated in Fig. 24a.
Fig. 24a. Measuring the advance amount of a maize plant
These after-effects can be advised on a graph. The time (in weeks) will be adumbrated on the x axis; 2 cm on the arbor represents 1 week. The bulb acme (in centimetres) will be adumbrated on the y axis; 1 cm on the arbor represents 1 cm of bulb height.
After 1 anniversary the acme is 2 cm; this is adumbrated on the blueprint with A; afterwards 2 weeks the acme is 5 cm, see B, and afterwards 3 weeks the acme is 10 cm, see C, as apparent in Fig. 24b.
At burying (Time = 0) the acme was zero, see D.
Now affix the crosses (see Fig. 24c) with a beeline line. The band indicates the advance amount of the plant; this is the acme access over time.
Fig. 24b. Advance amount of a maize plant
It can be apparent from the blueprint that the bulb is growing faster and faster (during the aboriginal anniversary 2 cm and during the third anniversary 5 cm); the band from B to C is steeper than the band from D to A.
From the blueprint can be apprehend what the acme of the bulb was after, say 2 1/2 weeks; see the dotted band (Fig. 24c). Locate on the accumbent arbor 2 1/2 weeks and chase the dotted band upwards until the dotted band crosses the graph. From this bridge chase the dotted band to the larboard until the vertical arbor is reached. Now booty the reading: 7.5 cm, which agency that the bulb had a acme of 7.5 cm afterwards 2 1/2 weeks. This acme has not been abstinent in reality, but with the blueprint the acme can be bent anyway.
What was the acme of the bulb afterwards 1 1/2 weeks?
The acme of the bulb afterwards 1 1/2 weeks was 3.5 cm (see Fig. 24c).
Fig. 24c. Blueprint of the advance amount of a maize plant
Another archetype to allegorize how a blueprint should be fabricated is the aberration of the temperature over one abounding day (24 hours). Suppose the alfresco temperature (always in the shade) is measured, with a thermometer, every two hours, starting at midnight and catastrophe the afterward midnight.
Suppose the afterward after-effects are found:
On the x arbor announce the time in hours, whereby 1 cm on the blueprint is 2 hours. On the y arbor announce the temperature in degrees Celsius (°C), whereby 1 cm on the blueprint is 5°C.
Now announce (with crosses) the ethics from the table (above) on the blueprint cardboard and affix the crosses with beeline dotted ambit (see Fig. 25a).
Fig. 25a. Blueprint assuming temperature over 24 hours; aberration 16 hour reading
At this stage, if you attending anxiously at the graph, you will agenda that there is a actual brusque change in its appearance about the sixteenth hour. The alfresco temperature seems to acquire collapsed from 28°C to 2°C in two hours time! That does not accomplish sense, and the account of the thermometer at the sixteenth hour charge acquire been wrong. This cantankerous cannot be taken in application for the blueprint and should be rejected. The alone dotted band we can acquire is the beeline one in amid the account at the fourteenth hour and the account at the eighteenth hour (see Fig. 25b).
Fig. 25b. Blueprint assuming temperature over 24 hours; estimated alteration of mistake
In absoluteness the temperature will change added gradually than adumbrated by the dotted line; that is why a bland ambit is fabricated (continuous line). The bland ambit represents the best astute approximation of the temperature over 24 hours (see Fig. 25c).
Fig. 25c. Blueprint assuming temperature over 24 hours; bland curve
From the blueprint it can be apparent that the minimum or everyman temperature was accomplished about 4 o’clock in the morning and was about 6°C. The accomplished temperature was accomplished at 4 o’clock in the afternoon and was about 29°C.
What was the temperature at 7, 15 and 23 hours? (Always use the bland ambit to booty the readings).
ANSWER (see Fig. 25c)
Temperature at 7 hours: 10°CTemperature at 15 hours: 29°CTemperature at 23 hours: 17°C
1.7.1 Questions1.7.2 Answers
1) Account the apparent areas of the afterward triangles:
2) Account the apparent areas of the afterward trapeziums:
3) Account the array of the aqueduct back given:
4) Account the wetted array back in accession to 3) is accustomed that the baptize acme is 0.8 m and the top amplitude of the baptize apparent is 2.32 m.
5) A ellipsoidal acreage has a breadth of 120 m and a amplitude of 85 m. What is the breadth of the acreage in hectares?
7) Account the aggregate of the afterward blocks, back given:
8) Account the aggregate of baptize (in m3) on a field, back given: the breadth = 150 m, the amplitude = 56 m and the baptize band = 70 mm.
9) Account the minimum abyss of a reservoir, which has: a breadth of 15 m and a amplitude of 10 m and which has to accommodate 50 mm baptize for a acreage of 175 m continued and 95 m wide.
10) Accomplish a blueprint of the account condensate over a aeon of 1 year, back given:
3) A = 0.5 x (b a) x h = 0.5 x (1.2 m 2.6 m) x 1 m = 1.9 m2
4) A = 0.5 x (b a1) x h1 – 0.5 x (1.2 m 2.32 m) x 0.8 m = 1.408 m2
5) Breadth of the acreage in aboveboard metres = l (m) x w (m) = 120 m x 85 m = 10 200 m2
8) V = l x w x h = 150 m x 56 m x 0.070 m = 588 m3
Volume of the reservoir: V = 831.25 m3 = breadth of backlog (m) x amplitude of backlog (m) x abyss of backlog (m)
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